Handbook:Main Page

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The Gentoo Handbook effort

Introduzione

Il manuale di Gentoo è un tentativo di centralizzare la documentazione in un manuale coerente. Questo manuale contiene istruzioni per effettuare installazioni via Internet e sezioni riguardanti il lavorare con Gentoo e Portage.

Architetture

Gentoo Linux è disponibile per diverse architetture. Ma cos'è un'architettura, esattamente?

Un'"architettura" è una famiglia di CPU (processori) che supportano le stesse istruzioni. Le due architetture dominanti nel mondo desktop sono l'architettura x86 e l'architettura x86_64 (per la quale Gentoo utilizza la notazione amd64). Esistono inoltre molte altre architetture, come sparc, ppc (la famiglia PowerPC), mips, arm, etc...

Una distribuzione così versatile come Gentoo supporta molte architetture. Per questo motivo, scoprirai che esistono manuali di Gentoo specifici per molte delle architetture supportate. Comunque, ciò potrebbe portare ad un po' di confusione in quanto non tutti gli utenti sono consapevoli delle differenze tra di esse. Alcuni conoscono solo il tipo o il nome della CPU che è contenuta nel loro computer (come per esempio "i686" o "Intel Core i7"). Qui sotto trovi una breve raccolta delle architetture supportate e delle abbreviazioni usate in Gentoo. In ogni modo, la maggior parte delle persone che non conoscono l'architettura del proprio sistema sono probabilmente interessate all'architettura x86 o all'architettura amd64.

Viewing the Handbook

The list below gives a high-level overview of the architectures supported by various Gentoo Linux projects. It is important to choose the correct architecture before proceeding with the associated Installation section of a Handbook. Be sure to verify the CPU's architecture before moving onward.

A note for new Gentoo users: if the CPU is less than five years old and the manufacturer is either Intel or AMD, choosing the AMD64 Handbook is probably the correct route.

Note
The arm and arm64 architectures are supported by the Gentoo project but do not yet have Handbooks at their disposal. Please refer to the ARM project and bug #534376 for more information.
Alpha Handbook
The Alpha architecture is a 64-bit architecture developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). It is still in use by some mid-range and high-end servers, but the architecture is slowly being faded out. Variants include: ES40, AlphaPC, UP1000, and Noname.
AMD64 Handbook
AMD64 is a 64-bit architecture that is compatible with the x86 architecture (and thus also known as x86_64). It was first used by AMD (under the AMD64 name) and Intel (under the EM64T name) and is now the most prominent architecture for medium and high-end desktop PCs. It is also commonly found in the server segment. Variants include: AMD Athlon 64, Opteron, Sempron, Phenom, FX, and Ryzen along with Intel Pentium 4, Core2, Core i3, i5, i7, and some Atoms.
ARM Handbook
ARM is a 32-bit architecture that is a very popular in embedded and small systems. Sub-architectures range from ARMv1 to ARMv7 (Cortex) and are often found in smart phones, tablets, hand-held consoles, end-user GPS navigation systems, etc. Variants include: StrongARM and Cortex-M.
  • There is no ARM Handbook available at this time. Please see bug #534376.
ARM64 Handbook
ARM64 is a 64-bit variant of ARM for embedded and server systems. The primary sub-architecture referred to as AArch64 (also known as ARMv8-A) is produced by a few manufacturers. AArch64 chips are seen in a variety of SoCs including developer boards, smart phones, tablets, smart TVs, etc. Variants include: ARM Holdings' Cortex-A53, A57, A72, A73 and Qualcomm's Kryo and Falkor.
  • There is no ARM64 Handbook available at this time. Please see bug #534376.
HPPA Handbook
Referred to as HPPA, the PA-RISC architecture is an instruction set developed by Hewlett-Packard and was used in their mid- and high-end server series until about 2008 (after which HP started using Intel Itanium). Variants include: HP 9000 and PA-8600.
IA64 Handbook
IA64 is a 64-bit architecture designed by Intel and used in their Intel Itanium processor series. This architecture is not compatible with x86 or x86_64 (a.k.a. amd64) and is mostly found in medium and high-end server series. Variants include: Intel Itanium.
MIPS Handbook
Developed by MIPS Technologies, the MIPS architecture comprises multiple subfamilies (called revisions) such as MIPS I, MIPS III, MIPS32, MIPS64 and more. MIPS is most common in embedded systems. Variants include: MIPS32 1074K and R16000.
PPC Handbook
PPC is a 32-bit architecture used by many Apple, IBM and Motorola processors. They are most commonly found in embedded systems. Variants include: Apple OldWorld, Apple NewWorld, generi Pegasos, Efika, older IBM iSeries and pSeries.
PPC64 Handbook
PPC64 is the 64-bit variant of the PPC architecture, popular in both embedded as well as high-end performance servers. Variants include: IBM RS/6000s, IBM pSeries, and IBM iSeries.
SPARC Handbook
The SPARC architecture is best known by its most common producers, Sun Microsystems (now Oracle) and Fujitsu. It is used in server systems although a few workstations exist as well. In Gentoo, only SPARC64-compatible CPUs are supported. Variants include: E3000, Blade 1000, and Ultra 2.
X86 Handbook
X86 is a 32-bit architecture used by CPUs that are often said to be "Intel compatible". It was until recently the most popular architecture for desktop PCs. Gentoo offers builds for i486 (supports all families) and i686 (supports Pentium and higher or compatible). Variants include: i486, i686, AMD Athlon, Intel Core, and some Intel Atoms.

FAQ: Domande frequenti

Can't the Handbook be dynamically generated for each installation choice?

Everything is possible, but we have opted to only do this on a per-architecture level. Other choices, like partitioning, kernel selection, and package installation are easy enough to explain in a single document.

I cannot find stage1 information in the Handbook. Where do I look?

Instructions on using a stage1 or stage2 tarball are now available in the Gentoo FAQ. A stage3 installation is the only supported method of installation.

How do I improve the Handbook?

Suggestions, comments, or ideas on how to make the Handbook better can be reported to the Handbook project via the Discussion page of the respective article. Documentation is made for the community, so community feedback is well appreciated.

Be aware that most decisions made while developing documentation are based on a consensus-model. It is impossible to write or structure documentation in such a way that renders every reader happy.

Those who open discussions with the goal of improving the Handbook must be able to accept a "No" as an answer. Typically "No" is used when we believe the current implementation is beneficial for the majority of readers.

In order to properly track open issues we ask you to add the {{Talk}} template to each discussion you open. Something similar to what is seen in the following example will suffice:

CODE Example open discussion
{{Talk|open|date=March 28, 2017}}
 
Hi, I constructively think this part of the Handbook can be enhanced in this way.
Here is an example of the code/text that will make the improvement:
 
(insert code or text to be improved here.)
 
Kind regards, --~~~~

The --~~~~ code at the end of the example inserts a dated signature when the page is saved or previewed. This code can either be typed in manually or generated by using the Signature and timestamp button in the edit toolbar. Wiki editors will refer to this as 'signing a discussion.' Please remember to sign each comment made on discussion pages.