کتابچهٔ راهنما:صفحهٔ اصلی

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تلاش کتابچهٔ راهنمای جنتو

معرفی

کتابچهٔ جنتو تلاشی‌ برای جمع‌آوری مستندات در قالب یک کتابچهٔ منسجم است. این کتابچه شامل آموزش نصب بر پایهٔ اینترنت و بخش‌هایی پیرامون کار با جنتو و پورتیج است.

معماری‌ها

لینوکس جنتو برای بسیاری از معماری‌ها در دسترس است. اما یک معماری دقیقاً چیست؟

"معماری" خانواده‌ای از پردازنده‌ها هستند که از دستورالعمل‌های یکسانی پشتیبانی می‌کنند. دو نوع از برجسته‌ترین معماری‌ها، معماری x86 و x86_64 (که جنتو از amd64 برای آن استفاده می‌کند) هستند. اما بسیاری معماری‌های دیگر نیز موجود هستند؛ مانند sparc، ppc، mips، arm، و غیره ...

A distribution as versatile as Gentoo supports many architectures. For that reason, you'll find that our Gentoo Handbooks are offered for many of the supported architectures. However, that might lead to some confusion as not all users are aware of the differences. Some are only aware of the CPU type or name that their system is a part of (like i686 or Intel Core i7). Below you will find a quick summary of the supported architectures and the abbreviation used in Gentoo. However, most people that do not know the architecture of their system are mostly interested in x86 or amd64.

مشاهدهٔ کتابچهٔ راهنما

The list below gives a high-level overview of the architectures supported by various Gentoo Linux projects. It is important to choose the correct architecture before proceeding with the associated Installation section of a Handbook. Be sure to verify the CPU's architecture before moving onward.

یک نکته برای‌ کاربران تازه جنتو: اگر پردازندهٔ شما برای کمتر از ۵ سال پیش است و سازندهٔ آن اینتل یا AMD است، انتخاب کتابچهٔ AMD64 احتمالاً مسیر مناسبی خواهد بود.

Note
The arm and arm64 architectures are supported by the Gentoo project but do not yet have Handbooks at their disposal. Please refer to the ARM project and bug #534376 for more information.
Alpha Handbook
The Alpha architecture is a 64-bit architecture developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). It is still in use by some mid-range and high-end servers, but the architecture is slowly being faded out. Variants include: ES40, AlphaPC, UP1000, and Noname.
AMD64 Handbook
AMD64 is a 64-bit architecture that is compatible with the x86 architecture (and thus also known as x86_64). It was first used by AMD (under the AMD64 name) and Intel (under the EM64T name) and is now the most prominent architecture for medium and high-end desktop PCs. It is also commonly found in the server segment. Variants include: AMD Athlon 64, Opteron, Sempron, Phenom, FX, and Ryzen along with Intel Pentium 4, Core2, Core i3, i5, i7, and some Atoms.
ARM Handbook
ARM is a 32-bit architecture that is a very popular in embedded and small systems. Sub-architectures range from ARMv1 to ARMv7 (Cortex) and are often found in smart phones, tablets, hand-held consoles, end-user GPS navigation systems, etc. Variants include: StrongARM and Cortex-M.
  • There is no ARM Handbook available at this time. Please see bug #534376.
ARM64 Handbook
ARM64 is a 64-bit variant of ARM for embedded and server systems. The primary sub-architecture referred to as AArch64 (also known as ARMv8-A) is produced by a few manufacturers. AArch64 chips are seen in a variety of SoCs including developer boards, smart phones, tablets, smart TVs, etc. Variants include: ARM Holdings' Cortex-A53, A57, A72, A73 and Qualcomm's Kryo and Falkor.
  • There is no ARM64 Handbook available at this time. Please see bug #534376.
HPPA Handbook
Referred to as HPPA, the PA-RISC architecture is an instruction set developed by Hewlett-Packard and was used in their mid- and high-end server series until about 2008 (after which HP started using Intel Itanium). Variants include: HP 9000 and PA-8600.
IA64 Handbook
IA64 is a 64-bit architecture designed by Intel and used in their Intel Itanium processor series. This architecture is not compatible with x86 or x86_64 (a.k.a. amd64) and is mostly found in medium and high-end server series. Variants include: Intel Itanium.
MIPS Handbook
Developed by MIPS Technologies, the MIPS architecture comprises multiple subfamilies (called revisions) such as MIPS I, MIPS III, MIPS32, MIPS64 and more. MIPS is most common in embedded systems. Variants include: MIPS32 1074K and R16000.
PPC Handbook
PPC is a 32-bit architecture used by many Apple, IBM and Motorola processors. They are most commonly found in embedded systems. Variants include: Apple OldWorld, Apple NewWorld, generi Pegasos, Efika, older IBM iSeries and pSeries.
PPC64 Handbook
PPC64 is the 64-bit variant of the PPC architecture, popular in both embedded as well as high-end performance servers. Variants include: IBM RS/6000s, IBM pSeries, and IBM iSeries.
SPARC Handbook
The SPARC architecture is best known by its most common producers, Sun Microsystems (now Oracle) and Fujitsu. It is used in server systems although a few workstations exist as well. In Gentoo, only SPARC64-compatible CPUs are supported. Variants include: E3000, Blade 1000, and Ultra 2.
X86 Handbook
X86 is a 32-bit architecture used by CPUs that are often said to be "Intel compatible". It was until recently the most popular architecture for desktop PCs. Gentoo offers builds for i486 (supports all families) and i686 (supports Pentium and higher or compatible). Variants include: i486, i686, AMD Athlon, Intel Core, and some Intel Atoms.

Frequently asked questions

Can't the Handbook be dynamically generated for each installation choice?

The handbook maintainers have opted to write on a per-architecture level using Gentoo's default init system (OpenRC) and basic partitioning schemes. The point of the Handbook is to get a bare-bones Gentoo system up and running, not to cover all possible installation paths (irregular partitioning, init systems, kernel configuration, system management utilities, etc.).

Concepts such as advanced partitioning, non-generic kernel configuration, and alternate init systems are explained other areas around the wiki in publicly modifiable namespace (hint: anyone with wiki account can edit them!).

We ask our readers to search wiki and discover what is already available before requesting a new section or addition to be added to the Handbook. If you believe a new generic section is necessary to add to the Handbook, then propose a request by following the instructions below.

Note
Active handbook editors are down to only two or three members, so please provide some patience as we respond to new {{Talk}} entries. See below for instruction on how to suggest a new improvement to the handbook.

I cannot find stage1 information in the Handbook. Where do I look?

Instructions on using a stage1 or stage2 tarball are now available in the Gentoo FAQ. A stage3 installation is the only supported method of installation.

چگونه می‌توانم کتابچهٔ راهنما را بهبود ببخشم؟

برای گزارش پیشنهادات، نظرات و ایده‌ها جهت بهبود کتابچهٔ راهنما به صفحهٔ بحث مربوط به پروژهٔ کتابچهٔ راهنما مراجعه کنید. مستندات برای جامعه ساخته شده‌اند، پس بازخورد جامعه مورد قدردانی قرار می‌کیرد.

Be aware that most decisions made while developing documentation are based on a consensus-model. It is impossible to write or structure documentation in such a way that renders every reader happy.

کسانی که بحثی با هدف بهبود کتابچه باز می‌کنند باید توانایی پذیرفتن پاسخ "خیر" را داشته باشند. اگر پیاده‌سازی‌های حاضر برای خواننده‌ها بهتر باشد، ما جواب رد به بحث‌ها خواهیم داد.

In order to properly track open issues we ask you to add the {{Talk}} template to each discussion you open. Something similar to what is seen in the following example will suffice:

CODE Example open discussion
{{Talk|open|date=March 28, 2017}}
 
Hi Handbook team,
 
I constructively think FOO part of the Handbook can be enhanced in BAR way. Here is an example of the code/text that will make the improvement:
 
(insert code or text to be improved here.)
 
Thank you for considering my suggestion. --~~~~

The --~~~~ code at the end of the example inserts a dated signature when the page is saved or previewed. This code can either be typed in manually or generated by using the Signature and timestamp button in the edit toolbar. Wiki editors will refer to this as 'signing a discussion.' Please remember to sign each comment made on discussion pages.