手册:主页

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Gentoo手册的成果

介绍

本Gentoo手册是一个整理好的、条理明晰的安装手册。本手册包含基于互联网的安装方法及Gentoo和Portage的安装使用。

架构

Gentoo Linux是一个适用于多种架构的发行版,但准确来说,什么叫架构?

“架构”是指支持相同指令集的CPU(处理器)系列。在桌面环境最为著名的两个架构是x86 架构和x86_64架构(Gentoo用amd64来标注)。除此之外,还有许多其他架构,比如sparc,ppc(PowerPC系列),mips,arm等等

像Gentoo这样的通用型 Linux 发行版支持多种架构。因此,你会发现我们的Gentoo手册为各种架构提供了相应版本。然而,由于普通用户一般不解它们之间的差异,反而会因此产生困惑。普通用户一般只知道他们所用系统的CPU型号或者名称是其中之一(比如i686或者Intel Core i7)而已。为此,我们在下面列出了一个 Gentoo 所支持的架构及其相应缩写的清单。不过话又说回来,那些不了解系统架构相关知识的用户,主要兴趣一般都放在x86amd64上。

查看手册

下面的列表概述了各种Gentoo Linux项目支持的体系架构。在继续使用手册的相关安装部分之前,选择正确的体系架构非常重要。在继续之前,请务必确认CPU的架构。

190/5000 新Gentoo用户的注意事项:如果CPU不到5年,制造商是英特尔或AMD,选择AMD64 Handbook可能是正确途径

Note
Gentoo项目支持armarm64架构,但还没有一个针对这两类架构的完整手册。请参考 ARM projectbug #534376以获取更多信息。
Alpha Handbook
The Alpha architecture is a 64-bit architecture developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). It is still in use by some mid-range and high-end servers, but the architecture is slowly being faded out. Variants include: ES40, AlphaPC, UP1000, and Noname.
AMD64 Handbook
AMD64 is a 64-bit architecture that is compatible with the x86 architecture (and thus also known as x86_64). It was first used by AMD (under the AMD64 name) and Intel (under the EM64T name) and is now the most prominent architecture for medium and high-end desktop PCs. It is also commonly found in the server segment. Variants include: AMD Athlon 64, Opteron, Sempron, Phenom, FX, and Ryzen along with Intel Pentium 4, Core2, Core i3, i5, i7, and some Atoms.
ARM Handbook
ARM is a 32-bit architecture that is a very popular in embedded and small systems. Sub-architectures range from ARMv1 to ARMv7 (Cortex) and are often found in smart phones, tablets, hand-held consoles, end-user GPS navigation systems, etc. Variants include: StrongARM and Cortex-M.
  • There is no ARM Handbook available at this time. Please see bug #534376.
ARM64 Handbook
ARM64 is a 64-bit variant of ARM for embedded and server systems. The primary sub-architecture referred to as AArch64 (also known as ARMv8-A) is produced by a few manufacturers. AArch64 chips are seen in a variety of SoCs including developer boards, smart phones, tablets, smart TVs, etc. Variants include: ARM Holdings' Cortex-A53, A57, A72, A73 and Qualcomm's Kryo and Falkor.
  • There is no ARM64 Handbook available at this time. Please see bug #534376.
HPPA Handbook
Referred to as HPPA, the PA-RISC architecture is an instruction set developed by Hewlett-Packard and was used in their mid- and high-end server series until about 2008 (after which HP started using Intel Itanium). Variants include: HP 9000 and PA-8600.
IA64 Handbook
IA64 is a 64-bit architecture designed by Intel and used in their Intel Itanium processor series. This architecture is not compatible with x86 or x86_64 (a.k.a. amd64) and is mostly found in medium and high-end server series. Variants include: Intel Itanium.
MIPS Handbook
Developed by MIPS Technologies, the MIPS architecture comprises multiple subfamilies (called revisions) such as MIPS I, MIPS III, MIPS32, MIPS64 and more. MIPS is most common in embedded systems. Variants include: MIPS32 1074K and R16000.
PPC Handbook
PPC is a 32-bit architecture used by many Apple, IBM and Motorola processors. They are most commonly found in embedded systems. Variants include: Apple OldWorld, Apple NewWorld, generi Pegasos, Efika, older IBM iSeries and pSeries.
PPC64 Handbook
PPC64 is the 64-bit variant of the PPC architecture, popular in both embedded as well as high-end performance servers. Variants include: IBM RS/6000s, IBM pSeries, and IBM iSeries.
SPARC Handbook
The SPARC architecture is best known by its most common producers, Sun Microsystems (now Oracle) and Fujitsu. It is used in server systems although a few workstations exist as well. In Gentoo, only SPARC64-compatible CPUs are supported. Variants include: E3000, Blade 1000, and Ultra 2.
X86 Handbook
X86 is a 32-bit architecture used by CPUs that are often said to be "Intel compatible". It was until recently the most popular architecture for desktop PCs. Gentoo offers builds for i486 (supports all families) and i686 (supports Pentium and higher or compatible). Variants include: i486, i686, AMD Athlon, Intel Core, and some Intel Atoms.

常见问题

不能为每个安装选择动态生成手册?

The handbook maintainers have opted to write on a per-architecture level using Gentoo's default init system (OpenRC) and basic partitioning schemes. The point of the Handbook is to get a bare-bones Gentoo system up and running, not to cover all possible installation paths (irregular partitioning, init systems, kernel configuration, system management utilities, etc.).

Concepts such as advanced partitioning, non-generic kernel configuration, and alternate init systems are explained other areas around the wiki in publicly modifiable namespace (hint: anyone with wiki account can edit them!).

We ask our readers to search wiki and discover what is already available before requesting a new section or addition to be added to the Handbook. If you believe a new generic section is necessary to add to the Handbook, then propose a request by following the instructions below.

Note
Active handbook editors are down to only two or three members, so please provide some patience as we respond to new {{Talk}} entries. See below for instruction on how to suggest a new improvement to the handbook.

我在手册中找不到关于stage1的信息.我该在哪里看?

使用stage1或stage2包的安装指南可以在Gentoo FAQ中找到。现在只支持stage3的安装方法。

如何改进手册?

Suggestions, comments, or ideas on how to make the Handbook better can be reported to the Handbook project via the Discussion page of the respective article. Documentation is made for the community, so community feedback is well appreciated.

Be aware that most decisions made while developing documentation are based on a consensus-model. It is impossible to write or structure documentation in such a way that renders every reader happy.

Those who open discussions with the goal of improving the Handbook must be able to accept a "No" as an answer. Typically "No" is used when we believe the current implementation is beneficial for the majority of readers.

In order to properly track open issues we ask you to add the {{Talk}} template to each discussion you open. Something similar to what is seen in the following example will suffice:

CODE Example open discussion
{{Talk|open|date=March 28, 2017}}
 
Hi Handbook team,

I constructively think FOO part of the Handbook can be enhanced in BAR way. Here is an example of the code/text that will make the improvement:
 
(insert code or text to be improved here.)
 
Thank you for considering my suggestion. --~~~~

The --~~~~ code at the end of the example inserts a dated signature when the page is saved or previewed. This code can either be typed in manually or generated by using the Signature and timestamp button in the edit toolbar. Wiki editors will refer to this as 'signing a discussion.' Please remember to sign each comment made on discussion pages.