Ten artykuł to kolekcja pytań i odpowiedzi zgromadzonych z listy mailingowej gentoo-dev oraz z kanałów Gentoo na Freenode Internet Relay Chat (IRC).
Zauważ, że na wiele z tych pytań udzielono odpowiedzi w poradnikach i oficjalnej dokumentacji Gentoo. To jest po prostu lista typowych pytań. Przeczytaj dokumentację Gentoo i strony podręcznika (man), aby lepiej zrozumieć działanie Gentoo i GNU / Linux oraz uzyskać odpowiedzi na pytania, na które nie ma tu odpowiedzi.
These questions are often collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from Gentoo channels on Internet Relay Chat (IRC).
Jak wymawia się Gentoo i co to oznacza?
Gentoo is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo penguin is Pygoscelis papua. The name Gentoo has been given to the penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
Co wyróżnia Gentoo??
Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called Portage. Portage is a package management system that allows great flexibility installing and maintaining software on a Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through USE flags), conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation of software (through sandboxing), system profiles, and configuration file protection amongst several other features.
Domyślnie w Gentoo cały system jest kompilowany z kodu źródłowego, przy użyciu optymalizacji wybranych przez użytkownika. Użytkownik ma całkowitą kontrolę nad tym, które pakiety są lub nie są zainstalowane. Gentoo oferuje wiele możliwości wyboru, dzięki czemu użytkownicy mogą instalować Gentoo według własnych preferencji, dlatego Gentoo nazywa się „meta-dystrybucją”.
Gentoo jest aktywnie rozwijane. Cała dystrybucja wykorzystuje styl szybkiego rozwoju: łatki do pakietów są szybko włączane do drzewa głównego,dokumentacja jest codziennie aktualizowana, funkcje Portage są często dodawane, a oficjalne wydania pojawiają się dwa razy w roku.
Things are really unstable when using '-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer' optimizations. What gives?
While Portage optimizes compilation to a specific processor according to the CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, anything other than the defaults for a given processor risk issues and even performance loss. The goal of the Gentoo project has never specifically been to permit low level optimization, even if its architecture does lend itself to this.
Any required CFLAGS should be set on a per-package basis, system-wide optimization above defaults is not recommended.
-O2 flag is the highest that should always work. Anything above
-O3 is not supported by current versions of GCC. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it does not quite do the same thing anymore.
Spróbuj skompilować za pomocą
-O2 -march=<system_arch> wraz z CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS before reporting a bug.
See the GCC optimization article for more details.
Jak zmienić hasło roota (lub każdego innego użytkownika) ?
Użyj polecenia passwd, aby zmienić hasło dla aktualnie zalogowanego użytkownika. Użytkownik root może zmienić hasło innych użytkowników za pomocą polecenia passwd nazwa_użytkownika. Dodatkowe opcje i ustawienia dla passwd można znaleźć na stronie podręcznika (man passwd).
Jak dodać normalnego użytkownika?
Polecenie useradd larry doda użytkownika o nazwie "larry". Jednak ta metoda nie daje użytkownikowi wielu praw potrzebnych do prawidłowego działania w systemie, dlatego preferowane jest następujące polecenie:
useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel larry
This will add a user called "larry". The
-G option adds the user to a number of groups:
userswhich is the standard group for interactive users on the system
audiowhich allows the user to access sound devices
wheelwhich allows the user to execute the su command to gain root privileges (if he/she knows the root password)
Dlaczego użytkownik nie może wykonać su root?
For security reasons, users may only su to root if they belong to the wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command as root:
gpasswd -a <nazwa_użytkownika> wheel
Czy mogę zaktualizować Gentoo do innej wersji bez reinstalacji systemu?
Gentoo does not have different "releases", or even "versions", but rather individual packages are updated continually: it is a rolling release distribution. Each time the system is synchronized and updated to mirror the current Gentoo repository, everything will be absolutely "up to date". Gentoo requires Internet access with sufficient stability and capacity for installation and updates.
Gentoo should be updated regularly (updating daily or every few days is not unreasonable) for security reasons, and to avoid updates becoming complex, were the system to become too out of sync with the repository. Core packages will be updated from time to time, and new profiles will be created, but there will be no specific event bundling major updates that could resemble a "release".
For each Gentoo installation, a custom configuration will be set up - based on system architecture and intended use. Different stages will be used for installation, a specific profile should be selected, and various configuration settings will be used for different installations, but there are no versions, releases, editions, variants etc. for Gentoo.
See the Gentoo Upgrading Guide for information about updates.
Moje jądro się nie uruchamia, co powinienem zrobić?
It isn't obligatory to redo every step of the installation. However, investigating the kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose that Gentoo is installed on /dev/sda1 (/boot) and /dev/sda3 (/) with /dev/sda2 being the swap space.
Boot from the install CD and wait until a command prompt shows up.
Wpierw mount na wszystkich partycjach:
mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot
mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc
mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys
mount --make-rslave /mnt/gentoo/sys
mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev
mount --make-rslave /mnt/gentoo/dev
Następnie przejdź do środowiska Gentoo za pomocą chroot i skonfiguruj jądro:
chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash
env-update && source /etc/profile
Now (de)select anything that was (de)selected wrongly on the previous attempt, quit, and compile and install the kernel:
make $(portageq envvar MAKEOPTS) && make install modules_install
If LILO has been used as the bootloader, rerun lilo - GRUB users should skip this step:
Wyjdź z środowiska chroot i uruchom ponownie system.
umount -l /mnt/gentoo/dev /mnt/gentoo/sys
umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo
Please see this article from the Knowledge Base for further details.
If, on the other hand, the problem lies with the bootloader configuration, follow the same steps, but instead of configuring and compiling the kernel, reconfigure the bootloader (recompilation of the bootloader is usually not necessary).
Mój serwer proxy wymaga uwierzytelnienia, co mam zrobić?
To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in /etc/portage/make.conf:
http_proxy="http://username:firstname.lastname@example.org:portnumber" ftp_proxy="ftp://username:email@example.com:portnumber" RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:firstname.lastname@example.org:portnumber"
Keep in mind that the proxy server must support the CONNECT method for the rsync port(s).
Beware of the risks of storing passwords in configuration files. It is bad practice in general, and in some situations can be a huge security problem. Alternative, more secure methods, are advised.
Jak wypalić obraz ISO?
ISO files must be burned in raw mode. This means the file should not just be placed on the CD, but interpreted as an entire CD.
There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
- With EasyCD Creator select File, Record CD from CD image. Then change the Files of type to ISO image file. Then locate the ISO file and click Open. After clicking Start recording the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD/DVD.
- With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and select Burn Image from the File menu. Select the image to burn and click Open. Now click the Burn button and watch the brand new Gentoo Live CD being burnt.
- With cdrecord, simply type cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom (replace /dev/cdrom with the CDROM drive's device path) followed by the path to the ISO file.
- With K3B, select Tools → CD → Burn CD Image. Then locate the ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Click Start to begin the burn process.
- With Mac OS X Panther, launch Disk Utility from Applications/Utilities, select Open from the Images menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and select Burn in the Images menu.
- With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch Disk Copy from Applications/Utilities, select Burn Image from the File menu, select the ISO and click the Burn button.
See LiveUSB for information on writing iso files to USB devices.
What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?
First find out what CPU is in the system Gentoo is to be installed on (for instance a Pentium-M). Next find out what CPU type it is compatible with (instruction-wise) to find a proper match with Gentoo's CD or stages. Consulting the CPU's vendor website for this information usually works, although querying a search engine of choice is usually more efficient.
When uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even generic x86 (or the equivalent in the system's arch). This will ensure that the system will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the GCC guide for setting the
The Internet does not work after rebooting. What is wrong?
First follow standard troubleshooting practices (cables, routers working etc.).
Verify that the network card is discovered properly by the kernel. Run ifconfig -a and look for network interfaces. Something such as eth0, eno1, enp2s0, enp0s8, wlan0, wlp5s6 (in case of certain wireless network cards) should be present. Specific kernel modules may be required for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make sure that the required kernel modules are listed via a file ending in
.conf in /etc/modules-load.d.
If support for the system's network card has been left out of the kernel, it will need to be reconfigured and, in some cases, recompiled.
If the network card is found by the kernel, but the network configuration has been set to use DHCP, a DHCP client might not have been installed on the system. There are many DHCP clients available in Gentoo, a common one being dhcpcd. If necessary to get the connection to the Internet working, reboot to the installation CD and install net-misc/dhcpcd.
Information on how to rescue the system using the installation CD is available here as well.
Can I dual boot with Windows or other operating systems?
Attempting to boot Windows from GRUB Legacy or LILO only shows a black screen. What should I do?
This is a known problem and only applies to older bootloaders such as GRUB Legacy and LILO. Windows refuses to boot when it is not installed on the first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, it is necessary to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive with a little tweak in the boot loader configuration. Please note that in the below example, Gentoo is installed on /dev/sda (first disk) and Windows on /dev/sdb (second disk). Adjust the configuration as needed:
title Windows XP map (hd1) (hd0) map (hd0) (hd1) rootnoverify (hd1,0) chainloader +1
The above example is for GRUB Legacy bootloader, not GRUB2. For information on how to dual boot Windows with GRUB2 see the GRUB2 article.
other=/dev/sdb1 label=WindowsXP table=/dev/sdb map-drive = 0x80 to = 0x81 map-drive = 0x81 to = 0x80
This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot without problems. More information can be found in official GRUB documentation and in man lilo.conf.
How do I install Gentoo using a stage1 or stage2 tarball?
The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball. Stage1 and stage2 tarballs are for development purposes only (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball to obtain a stage3) and should not be used by users. A stage3 tarball can very well be used to bootstrap the system. A working Internet connection is a requirement.
Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for the system after which all core system packages are installed. To bootstrap the system, perform a stage3 installation. Before starting the chapter on Configuring the Kernel, it might be necessary to modify the bootstrap.sh script to match personal requirements:
Po modyfikacjach, uruchom skrypt.
Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
emerge -e @system
Teraz kontynuuj "Konfigurację Jądra".
W jakiej formie są przechowywane pakiety?
Packages are not "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the package tailored to the user's needs. Generally Gentoo only builds binaries for releases and snapshots. The Gentoo Developer Manual covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
For full ISO releases, a full suite of binary packages will be created using an enhanced .tbz2 format, which is .tar.bz2 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
Możliwe jest tworzenie pakietów RPMs (pliki menadżera pakietów Red Hat) używając Portage od Gentoo, ale obecnie nie można wykorzystać istniejących pakietów RPM do instalacji.
I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?
Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead recommended that the ebuild is patched to do whatever it is that the user wants and place it in a Portage overlay (that is why overlays exist). This is much better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the Gentoo Developer Manual for more information.
Co jeśli rsync nie działa?
When behind a firewall that does not permit rsync traffic through port 873, the emerge-webrsync command can be used to fetch and install a Portage snapshot through regular HTTP. See this section for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via a proxy.
I have a slow (or no) Internet connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?
Definitely. Run emerge --pretend package/atom to see what programs are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to download the sources from, run emerge -fp package/atom. Download sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into the /var/cache/distfiles/ folder and then simply run emerge package/atom. Be warned: this can be a very tedious process.
Source tarballs are collecting in /var/cache/distfiles/. Is it safe to delete these files?
Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance. However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of software. If the archive is deleted and the software is upgraded or rebuilt it will be necessary to download them from the Internet again.
Use the eclean script from app-portage/gentoolkit to manage the contents of /var/cache/distfiles/ and a few other locations. Please read man eclean to learn more about its usage, as well as the Gentoolkit article.
What is in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?
During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in /var/tmp/portage (or in $PORTAGE_TMPDIR/portage if the default is changed). These files and folder are usually deleted upon a successful emerge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory if the emerge command is not running. Be sure to always pgrep emerge before cleaning out this directory.
How do I set up an International keyboard layout?
Edit the keymap variable in /etc/conf.d/keymaps. To have console working correctly with extended characters in the keymap, it might be necessary to set the consolefont and consoletransation variables in the /etc/conf.d/consolefont file (for further information on localizing the environment, refer to the localization guide). Then, issue a reboot, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
See keyboard layout switching for more information.
DNS name resolution works for root only
/etc/resolv.conf has the wrong permissions; fix it as follows:
chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf
See also resolv.conf.
Why can't my user use their own crontab?
Dodaj użytkownika do grupy cron:
gpasswd -a <nazwa_użytkownika> cron
How do I get numlock to start on boot?
The following command will add the numlock service to the default runlevel, enabling numlock at boot:
rc-update add numlock default
Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help section or online manuals for the GUI of choice for further assistance.
How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?
To have the terminal cleared, add the clear command to the user's ~/.bash_logout script:
echo clear >> ~/.bash_logout
To have this happen automatically when adding a new user, do the same for the /etc/skel/.bash_logout file:
echo clear >> /etc/skel/.bash_logout
ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues - how to fix them, etc
If the ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and run reiserfsck --rebuild-tree on the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent again, although there may be some lost files or directories due to the corruption.
Gdzie mogę zgłosić błąd?
How often are new releases made?
Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the upstream authors release new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check the Release Engineering Project page. New releases are announced on the gentoo-announce mailing list. See this section for more information.
My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
setterm -blength 0
To turn off the console beeps on boot, put the following command in the /etc/conf.d/local.start file. However, this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the target terminal, like this:
setterm -blength 0 > /dev/vc/1
Replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal for which console beeps need to be disabled.
See this article for more details.
Why is the letter 'e' in the name of many Gentoo-specific tools and functions?
The 'e' became a thing because Gentoo originally started as Enoch Linux. Many of Gentoo's tools and function names maintained the prefix 'e' for this reason.
Here's a quote from Daniel Robbins (Daniel Robbins) : "I think the 'e' likely came from enoch, and was picked as a single-character prefix in the vein of the 'iMac', which was initially released in August 1998. Enoch began in early 1999. (see https://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_History)."
Gdzie mogę znaleźć więcej informacji o Gentoo Linux?
Wiele oficjalnych dokumentacji Gentoo można znaleźć tutaj, na Wiki.
Mogę kupić płytę Gentoo Linux?
Users who are not able to download and burn installation CDs personally might find one through one of our licensed stores. However, most stores have dropped offering CDs and DVDs as these installation media quickly become obsolete.
The licensed stores are listed on the stores page.
This FAQ has not answered my question. What do I do now?
A good first step is to browse through the relevant documentation, failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed here. If all else fails, or to just hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on the #gentoo (webchat) Libera.Chat IRC channel.
This page is based on a document formerly found on our main website gentoo.org.
The following people contributed to the original document: Daniel Robbins (Daniel Robbins) , Colin Morey, John P. Davis, Eric Stockbridge, Stoyan Zhekov, Carl Anderson, Jorge Paulo, Benny Chuang, Jonathan Smith,
They are listed here because wiki history does not allow for any external attribution. If you edit the wiki article, please do not add yourself here; your contributions are recorded on each article's associated history page.