This article explains how to create a Gentoo LiveUSB or, in other words, how to emulate a x86 or amd64 Gentoo LiveCD using a USB drive. This is particularly useful for installing Gentoo on a modern laptop with no CD-ROM drive.
Although the instructions found in this document aim at emulating a Gentoo LiveCD using a USB drive, they should work for any arbitrary block device as long as the device names are adjusted accordingly.
Many other methods available on different operating systems should work for creating bootable LiveUSB drives for Gentoo installation.
This article covers creation of a simple bootable drive, from an image file, that can be useful for installing Gentoo to a hard drive, for example. For instructions on installation of a complete, functional, Gentoo system onto a USB drive, see the Install Gentoo on a bootable USB stick article.
unetbootin provides an easy, GUI, alternative to create a bootable USB sticks from a bootable CD image, in Gentoo.
In order to boot a LiveUSB, the following will be needed:
- Bootable USB drive with enough space to write the image to. When using the Gentoo Minimal Installation CD, at least 1GB. (Generally, the bigger the better.)
- A computer with support for
Access to the following is needed for creating a LiveUSB:
- A computer running Gentoo (or alternatively another Linux distribution)
- A computer running Microsoft Windows with the appropriate software (see the Windows section below)
- A computer able to run the dd command (e.g. MacOS)
Choosing an installation media for Gentoo
The architecture appropriate Gentoo Minimal Installation CD iso can be downloaded and used to install from a command line interface, as a "light" installation option. There is also a Gentoo LiveGUI USB Image which can provide a more ergonomic option (e.g. open the handbook in another window and copy paste commands with a middle mouse click to a terminal emulator, use a GUI IRC client for support, etc.).
When downloading, adjust the architecture (x86, amd64, arm, sparc, etc.) portion of the URL to match the system's CPU. Gentoo mirrors are here.
The Gentoo bootable images are by no means the only thing that can be used to install Gentoo - almost any modern LiveCD should work. Use whatever feels the most comfortable.
Gentoo Minimal Installation CD images support both UEFI and legacy boot.
Convert the ISO image to hybrid mode
Most modern LiveCD's, like Gentoo are already in hybrid mode. If the LiveUSB does not boot, then it may be that the image will have to be converted to hybrid mode. Hybrid mode means image will enable the ISO to boot from both a CD-ROM device or a USB drive.
Convert the ISO with the following command:
The isohybrid command comes as part of the sys-boot/syslinux package.
Using dd to write the ISO image to a USB drive
The dd command will wipe all data from the destination drive. Always backup all important data.
When using the Gentoo Installation CD ISOs, it is sufficient to directly copy the ISO contents onto the USB device. The dd command can be used to accomplish this. For instance, assuming the USB device is at /dev/sdc:
dd if=/path/to/image.iso of=/dev/sdc bs=8192k; sync
The dd utility will not return any progress output (it can provide some progress output, but not without some finagling). The command will exit without any errors when it completes the transfer successfully (i.e. with no output at all). Depending on the size of the ISO image and the speed of the USB device, this process could some time. Be patient!
Once complete, the USB drive should be bootable.
The remainder of this document explains how to setup a vfat partition that is writable using the syslinux bootloader.
Creating bootable LiveUSB drives under Windows
Rufus is a free and open source project created to write images to USB drives, with a variety of operating systems. It tends to be faster than the Universal USB installer (see in the next section).
Rufus can be downloaded from the project's homepage.
Rufus is easy to use and should be mostly self explanatory. For more information, see Rufus' FAQ page.
Universal USB Installer
Universal USB installer is one of the oldest Linux-capable LiveUSB creators for Windows systems. It supports most Linux distributions, and has a simple, helpful wizard for selecting the Linux distribution. For Gentoo Minimal Installation CDs, however, select the Try Unlisted Linux ISO which is at the very bottom of the list. Select the proper USB drive to format and extract Linux to, and click Create.
Universal USB installer can be downloaded from its homepage.
Insert the USB drive and turn on the computer, make sure the BIOS (or EFI firmware) has been set to boot from USB. If all goes well,a standard syslinux prompt should appear on the screen.
When attempting to boot from a USB device, be sure to select or enable USB drives as bootable devices in the system's firmware interface. If the ISO is UEFI capable, it may be necessary to enable booting UEFI devices as well. This is typically performed via toggle options in the BIOS or UEFI firmware interface.
The boot order may need to be adjusted in the system's firmware for USB devices to boot first, although it is usually easier to hit the appropriate key (commonly either F2 or Delete) and manually select the USB device as a one-time boot option from the list of bootable devices.
If installing Gentoo, follow the generic installation instructions found in the Gentoo Handbook appropriate to the system's architecture from here on!
- Live image — a concept that describes the medium by which a ethereal or disposable operating system environment is created.
- CD/DVD/BD writing — how to burn optical disks on Gentoo from the command line with the app-cdr/cdrtools or app-cdr/dvd+rw-tools packages
- FAQ - How do I burn an ISO file?
- LiveUSB/ISOLINUX — details creating a bootable LiveUSB drive from a ISOLINUX-based live image.
- Installing SystemRescueCd on a USB stick — The very popular alternative
- https://www.ventoy.net/ - Ventoy provides a simple means to create and modify bootable media. One disk may be used to provide multiple boot iso options. Beware that there seem to be a large number of open bugs - bug #736936.
This page is based on a document formerly found on our main website gentoo.org.
The following people contributed to the original document: brix, neysx
They are listed here because wiki history does not allow for any external attribution. If you edit the wiki article, please do not add yourself here; your contributions are recorded on each article's associated history page.