Sıkça Sorulan Sorular

From Gentoo Wiki
Jump to:navigation Jump to:search
This page is a translated version of the page FAQ and the translation is 31% complete.
Other languages:
Deutsch • ‎English • ‎Nederlands • ‎Türkçe • ‎español • ‎français • ‎italiano • ‎polski • ‎português do Brasil • ‎Ελληνικά • ‎русский • ‎中文(中国大陆)‎ • ‎日本語 • ‎한국어


"Sıkça Sorulan Sorular" bölümü, Gentoo hakkında sıkça sorulan sorulardan ve bu sorulara karşılık gelen yanıtlardan oluşan bir derlemedir.

Buradaki soruların büyük bir çoğunluğu resmi Gentoo dökümatasyonları ve rehberler bölümünde cevaplanmış olup, bu kısım sıradan sorunlara hızlı bir referans kaynağı olma amacı taşımaktadır. Gentoo ve GNU/Linux'un nasıl çalıştığını daha iyi bir şekilde anlamak ve bu kısımda bulunmayan soruların cevapları için lütfen Gentoo dökümantasyonlarını ve manuel sayfalarını okuyun.

Buradaki sorular genellikle gentoo-dev mail listesi ve İnternet Aktarmalı Sohbet'deki (Internet Relay Chat, IRC) Gentoo kanallarından toplanmıştır.

Gentoo Hakkında

Gentoo nasıl telaffuz edilir ve anlamı nedir?

Gentoo, "jen-too" şeklinde telaffuz edilmektedir. Gentoo pengueni'nin bilimsel adı Pygoscelis papua'dır. Penguenlere Gentoo ismi, Falkland Adaları'nın sakinleri tarafından verilmiştir.

Gentoo'yu farklı kılan nedir?

Gentoo, Portage adındaki BSD benzeri bir sistem kullanmaktadır. Portage, Gentoo sisteminde yazılım kurma ve bakımında büyük esneklik sunan bir paket yönetim sistemidir. Portage, derleme zamanı seçenek desteği (USE etiketleri aracılığı ile), koşullu bağımlılıklar, paket kurulum öncesi özet, yazılımın güvenli kurulumu (sanal alanlar aracılığı ile), sistem profilleri, yapılandırma dosyasının korunumu gibi ve daha bir çok farklı özellikler sağlamaktadır.

Gentoo, yükleme esnasında özellikle kullanıcının seçtiği yapılandırma ve optimizasyon seçimlerine göre bütün sistemi kaynak kodundan oluştur. Kullanıcının hangi paketlerin kurulu veya kurulmadığına dair tam bir kontrolü bulunmaktadır.

Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace development style, in what is termed a rolling release model: patches to packages are quickly integrated into the mainline tree, documentation is updated on a daily basis, and Portage features are added frequently. The fast turnaround cycle does not compromise on quality: packages start life in the testing branch and are only moved into stable once proved to be reliable.

Ayrıca web sitedeki Gentoo Hakkında, Gentoo Felsefesi ve Gentoo'nun Avantajları sayfalarına göz atın.

Kurulum

'-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer' optimizasyonlarını kullanırken yapılan işler oldukça kararsız. Neler oluyor?

While Portage optimizes compilation to a specific processor according to the CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS setting, anything other than the defaults for a given processor risk issues and even performance loss. The goal of the Gentoo project has never specifically been to permit low level optimization, even if its architecture does lend itself to this.

Any required CFLAGS should be set on a per-package basis, system-wide optimization above defaults is not recommended.

The -O2 flag is the highest that should always work. Anything above -O3 is not supported by current versions of GCC. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it does not quite do the same thing anymore.

Please try to compile using -O2 -march=native with CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS before reporting a bug.

Daha fazla detay için GCC Optimizasyonları makalesine göz atın.

Root kullanıcısının (veya herhangi bir kullanıcının) parolasını nasıl değiştirebilirim?

Giriş yapılmış olan kullanıcının şifresini değiştirmek için passwd komutunu kullanın. Root kullanıcısı, herhangi bir kullanıcının şifresini passwd username komutu ile değiştirebilir. Daha fazla seçenek ve ayar için passwd komutunun kılavuz sayfası olan (man passwd)'e göz atın.

Normal bir kullanıcıyı nasıl oluştururum?

useradd larry komutu "larry" isminde yeni bir kullanıcı oluşturacaktır. Ancak bu method, oluşturulan kullanıcıya sistemde düzgün bir şekilde çalışmak için gerekli olan hakları vermemektedir. Bu yüzden aşağıdaki komut tercih edilmektedir:

root #useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel larry

Bu komut "larry" isminde yeni bir kullanıcı oluşturacaktır. -G seçeneği ise kullanıcıyı bir dizi gruba ekleyecektir:

  • users grubu, sistemdeki etkileşimli kullanıcılar için standart bir gruptur
  • audio grubu, kullanıcının ses aygıtlarına erişimine izin vermektedir
  • wheel grubu, kullanıcının su komutunu çalıştırarak root ayrıcalıklarına erişmesine izin vermektedir (eğer kişi root kullanıcısının şifresini bilmekte ise)

Neden bir kullanıcı su komutu ile root ayrıcalıklarına erişemiyor?

Güvenlik sebepleri ile, kullancılar wheel grubunda bulunuyor iseler su komutunu kullanarak root ayrıcalıklarına erişebilmektedirler. Bir kullanıcıyı wheel grubuna eklemek için aşağıdaki komutu root kullanıcısı olarak çalıştırın:

root #gpasswd -a <username> wheel

Gentoo'yu yeniden yüklemeden bir sürümden diğerine yükseltebilir miyim?

Gentoo does not have different "releases", or even "versions", but rather individual packages are updated continually: it is a rolling release distribution. Each time the system is synchronized and updated to mirror the current Gentoo repository, everything will be absolutely "up to date". Gentoo requires Internet access with sufficient stability and capacity for installation and updates.

Gentoo should be updated regularly (updating daily or every few days is not unreasonable) for security reasons, and to avoid updates becoming complex, were the system to become too out of sync with the repository. Core packages will be updated from time to time, and new profiles will be created, but there will be no specific event bundling major updates that could resemble a "release".

For each Gentoo installation, a custom configuration will be set up - based on system architecture and intended use. Different stages will be used for installation, a specific profile should be selected, and various configuration settings will be used for different installations, but there are no versions, releases, editions, variants etc. for Gentoo.

See the Gentoo Upgrading Guide for information about updates.

My kernel does not boot, what should I do now?

It isn't obligatory to redo every step of the installation. However, investigating the kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose that Gentoo is installed on /dev/sda1 (/boot) and /dev/sda3 (/) with /dev/sda2 being the swap space.

Boot from the install CD and wait until a command prompt shows up.

First mount all the partitions:

root #mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo
root #mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot
root #swapon /dev/sda2
root #mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc
root #mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys
root #mount --make-rslave /mnt/gentoo/sys
root #mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev
root #mount --make-rslave /mnt/gentoo/dev

Then chroot into the Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:

root #chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash
root #env-update && source /etc/profile
root #cd /usr/src/linux
root #make menuconfig

Now (de)select anything that was (de)selected wrongly on the previous attempt, quit, and compile and install the kernel:

root #make $(portageq envvar MAKEOPTS) && make install modules_install

If LILO has been used as the bootloader, rerun lilo - GRUB users should skip this step:

root #/sbin/lilo

Exit the chroot and reboot the system.

root #exit
root #umount -l /mnt/gentoo/dev /mnt/gentoo/sys
root #umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo
root #reboot

Please see this article from the Knowledge Base for further details.

If, on the other hand, the problem lies with the bootloader configuration, follow the same steps, but instead of configuring and compiling the kernel, reconfigure the bootloader (recompilation of the bootloader is usually not necessary).

My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?

To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in /etc/portage/make.conf:

FILE /etc/portage/make.confSetting up proxy
http_proxy="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
ftp_proxy="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"

Keep in mind that the proxy server must support the CONNECT method for the rsync port(s).

Warning
Beware of the risks of storing passwords in configuration files. It is bad practice in general, and in some situations can be a huge security problem. Alternative, more secure methods, are advised.

Bir ISO dosyasını nasıl yazdırırım?

ISO files must be burned in raw mode. This means the file should not just be placed on the CD, but interpreted as an entire CD.

There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:

  • With EasyCD Creator select File, Record CD from CD image. Then change the Files of type to ISO image file. Then locate the ISO file and click Open. After clicking Start recording the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD/DVD.
  • With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and select Burn Image from the File menu. Select the image to burn and click Open. Now click the Burn button and watch the brand new Gentoo Live CD being burnt.
  • With cdrecord, simply type cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom (replace /dev/cdrom with the CDROM drive's device path) followed by the path to the ISO file.
  • With K3B, select ToolsCDBurn CD Image. Then locate the ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Click Start to begin the burn process.
  • With Mac OS X Panther, launch Disk Utility from Applications/Utilities, select Open from the Images menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and select Burn in the Images menu.
  • With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch Disk Copy from Applications/Utilities, select Burn Image from the File menu, select the ISO and click the Burn button.
Note
See LiveUSB for information on writing iso files to USB devices.

What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?

First find out what CPU is in the system Gentoo is to be installed on (for instance a Pentium-M). Next find out what CPU type it is compatible with (instruction-wise) to find a proper match with Gentoo's CD or stages. Consulting the CPU's vendor website for this information usually works, although querying a search engine of choice is usually more efficient.

When uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even generic x86 (or the equivalent in the system's arch). This will ensure that the system will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.

Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the GCC guide for setting the -march flag.

The Handbook has further information on selecting the correct tarball and choosing the right installation medium.

Sistemi yeniden başlattıktan sonra internet çalışmıyor. Sorun nedir?

First follow standard troubleshooting practices (cables, routers working etc.).

Verify that the network card is discovered properly by the kernel. Run ifconfig -a and look for network interfaces. Something such as eth0, eno1, enp2s0, enp0s8, wlan0, wlp5s6 (in case of certain wireless network cards) should be present. Specific kernel modules may be required for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make sure that the required kernel modules are listed via a file ending in .conf in /etc/modules-load.d.

If support for the system's network card has been left out of the kernel, it will need to be reconfigured and, in some cases, recompiled.

If the network card is found by the kernel, but the network configuration has been set to use DHCP, a DHCP client might not have been installed on the system. There are many DHCP clients available in Gentoo, a common one being dhcpcd. If necessary to get the connection to the Internet working, reboot to the installation CD and install net-misc/dhcpcd.

Information on how to rescue the system using the installation CD is available here as well.

The Handbook contains information on network setup, while the wiki has information on Ethernet, WiFi, and network management.

Can I dual boot with Windows or other operating systems?

Yes! Probably the fastest way to do so is to install GRUB2 with sys-boot/os-prober. Read about it in the GRUB2 article and specifically about dual booting with GRUB2 here.

Attempting to boot Windows from GRUB Legacy or LILO only shows a black screen. What should I do?

This is a known problem and only applies to older bootloaders such as GRUB Legacy and LILO. Windows refuses to boot when it is not installed on the first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, it is necessary to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive with a little tweak in the boot loader configuration. Please note that in the below example, Gentoo is installed on /dev/sda (first disk) and Windows on /dev/sdb (second disk). Adjust the configuration as needed:

FILE /boot/grub/grub.confExample dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf
title Windows XP
     map (hd1) (hd0)
     map (hd0) (hd1)
     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
     chainloader +1
Note
The above example is for GRUB Legacy bootloader, not GRUB2. For information on how to dual boot Windows with GRUB2 see the GRUB2 article.
FILE /etc/lilo.confExample dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf
other=/dev/sdb1
     label=WindowsXP
     table=/dev/sdb
     map-drive = 0x80
     to = 0x81
     map-drive = 0x81
     to = 0x80

This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot without problems. More information can be found in official GRUB documentation and in man lilo.conf.

How do I install Gentoo using a stage1 or stage2 tarball?

The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball. Stage1 and stage2 tarballs are for development purposes only (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball to obtain a stage3) and should not be used by users. A stage3 tarball can very well be used to bootstrap the system. A working Internet connection is a requirement.

Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for the system after which all core system packages are installed. To bootstrap the system, perform a stage3 installation. Before starting the chapter on Configuring the Kernel, it might be necessary to modify the bootstrap.sh script to match personal requirements:

root #cd /var/db/repos/gentoo/scripts
root #vi bootstrap.sh

After modifications, run the script.

root #./bootstrap.sh

Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:

root #emerge -e @system

Now continue with Configuring the Kernel.

Paket yönetimi

In what form are the packages stored?

Packages are not "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the package tailored to the user's needs. Generally Gentoo only builds binaries for releases and snapshots. The Gentoo Developer Manual covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.

For full ISO releases, a full suite of binary packages will be created using an enhanced .tbz2 format, which is .tar.bz2 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.

It is possible to create RPMs (Red Hat package manager files) using Gentoo's Portage, but it is not currently possible to use existing RPMs to install packages.

I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?

Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead recommended that the ebuild is patched to do whatever it is that the user wants and place it in a Portage overlay (that is why overlays exist). This is much better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the Gentoo Developer Manual for more information.

What if rsync does not work for me?

When behind a firewall that does not permit rsync traffic through port 873, the emerge-webrsync command can be used to fetch and install a Portage snapshot through regular HTTP. See this section for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via a proxy.

I have a slow (or no) Internet connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?

Definitely. Run emerge --pretend package/atom to see what programs are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to download the sources from, run emerge -fp package/atom. Download sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into the /var/cache/distfiles/ folder and then simply run emerge package/atom. Be warned: this can be a very tedious process.

Source tarballs are collecting in /var/cache/distfiles/. Is it safe to delete these files?

Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance. However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of software. If the archive is deleted and the software is upgraded or rebuilt it will be necessary to download them from the Internet again.

Use the eclean script from app-portage/gentoolkit to manage the contents of /var/cache/distfiles/ and a few other locations. Please read man eclean to learn more about its usage, as well as the Gentoolkit article.

What is in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?

During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in /var/tmp/portage (or in $PORTAGE_TMPDIR/portage if the default is changed). These files and folder are usually deleted upon a successful emerge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory if the emerge command is not running. Be sure to always pgrep emerge before cleaning out this directory.

Kullanım

How do I set up an International keyboard layout?

Edit the keymap variable in /etc/conf.d/keymaps. To have console working correctly with extended characters in the keymap, it might be necessary to set the consolefont and consoletransation variables in the /etc/conf.d/consolefont file (for further information on localizing the environment, refer to the localization guide). Then, issue a reboot, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:

root #/etc/init.d/keymaps restart
root #/etc/init.d/consolefont restart

See keyboard layout switching for more information.

DNS name resolution works for root only

/etc/resolv.conf has the wrong permissions; fix it as follows:

root #chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf

See also resolv.conf.

Why can't my user use their own crontab?

Add that user to the cron group:

root #gpasswd -a <username> cron

Numlock'u önyükleme sırasında aktif olmasını nasıl yapabilirim ?

The following command will add the numlock service to the default runlevel, enabling numlock at boot:

root #rc-update add numlock default
root #/etc/init.d/numlock start

Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help section or online manuals for the GUI of choice for further assistance.

Çıkış yaptığımda terminalin temizlenmesini nasıl yapabilirim?

Terminali temizletmek için clear komutunu, ilgili kullanıcının ~/.bash_logout dosyasına ekleyin:

user $echo clear >> ~/.bash_logout

Bu işlemi yeni bir kullanıcı oluşturulduğunda otomatik olarak gerçekleştirmek için aynı işlemi /etc/skel/.bash_logout dosyasına da uygulayın:

root #echo clear >> /etc/skel/.bash_logout

Maintenance

ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues - how to fix them, etc

If the ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and run reiserfsck --rebuild-tree on the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent again, although there may be some lost files or directories due to the corruption.

Development

Where can I report bugs?

Use the Bugzilla site to report bugs. Visit #gentoo (webchat) on the Libera.Chat IRC network and ask around if it is unclear whether an issue is really a bug or not.

How often are new releases made?

Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the upstream authors release new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check the Release Engineering Project page. New releases are announced on the gentoo-announce mailing list. See this section for more information.

Hoparlörüm deli gibi bip sesleri çıkartmakta. Konsolun bip seslerini nasıl devre dışı bırakabilirim?

Konsol bip sesleri setterm komutu kullanılarak kapatılabilmektedir.

root #setterm -blength 0

Ön yükleme sırasındaki konsol bip seslerini kapatmak için aşağıdaki komutu /etc/conf.d/local.start dosyasının içine yerleştirin. Ancak bu, sadece geçerli terminaldeki bip seslerini devre dışı bırakmaktadır. Diğer terminallerdeki bip seslerini de devre dışı bırakmak için, şekildeki gibi komutun çıktısını hedef terminale aktarın:

root #setterm -blength 0 > /dev/vc/1

/dev/vc/1 kısmını, konsol bip seslerinin devre dışı bırakılması istenilen terminal ile değiştirin.

Daha fazla detay için bu makaleye göz atın.

Önemsiz Bilgiler

Why is the letter 'e' in the name of many Gentoo-specific tools and functions?

The 'e' became a thing because Gentoo originally started as Enoch Linux. Many of Gentoo's tools and function names maintained the prefix 'e' for this reason.

Here's a quote from Daniel Robbins (Daniel Robbins) : "I think the 'e' likely came from enoch, and was picked as a single-character prefix in the vein of the 'iMac', which was initially released in August 1998. Enoch began in early 1999. (see https://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_History)."

Kaynaklar

Gentoo Linux hakkında daha fazla bilgiyi nereden edinebilirim?

Resmi Gentoo dökümantasyonlarının çoğu burada, wiki'de bulunabilir.

Gentoo Linux CD'si satın alabilir miyim?

Users who are not able to download and burn installation CDs personally might find one through one of our licensed stores. However, most stores have dropped offering CDs and DVDs as these installation media quickly become obsolete.

Lisanslı mağazalar, Mağaza sayfası'nda listelenmiştir.

Sıkça Sorulan Sorular sayfasında soruma cevap alamadım. Peki şimdi ne yapmalıyım?

A good first step is to browse through the relevant documentation, failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed here. If all else fails, or to just hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on the #gentoo (webchat) Libera.Chat IRC channel.


This page is based on a document formerly found on our main website gentoo.org.
The following people contributed to the original document: Daniel Robbins (Daniel Robbins) , Colin Morey, John P. Davis, Eric Stockbridge, Stoyan Zhekov, Carl Anderson, Jorge Paulo, Benny Chuang, Jonathan Smith,
They are listed here because wiki history does not allow for any external attribution. If you edit the wiki article, please do not add yourself here; your contributions are recorded on each article's associated history page.