AMD64/FAQ

From Gentoo Wiki
< AMD64
Jump to:navigation Jump to:search
This page is a translated version of the page AMD64/FAQ and the translation is 25% complete.
Outdated translations are marked like this.
Other languages:
Deutsch • ‎English • ‎Nederlands • ‎español • ‎français • ‎italiano • ‎polski • ‎português do Brasil • ‎русский • ‎中文(中国大陆)‎ • ‎日本語 • ‎한국어


Gentoo AMD64 artykuł o Najczęściej Zadawanych Pytaniach (FAQ).

Article status
This article has some todo items:


Wprowadzenie

Ten dokument zawiera najcześciej zadawane pytania o korzystaniu z Gentoo Linux w architekturze amd64. Wiele z tych pytań pochodzi z forum, IRC oraz różnych list mailingowych. Projekt AMD64 zapewnia wsparcie dla Gentoo Linux w tej architekturze. Jeżeli masz sugestie lub pytania odnośnie tego artykułu, proszę pozostaw komentarz na powiązanej stronie dyskusji.

Instalacja

Czym różni się AMD64 od EM64T?

Oba odnoszą się do procesorów 64-bitowych, pierwszy to AMD (AMD64) i drugi to Intel (EM64T). Procesory 64-bitowe AMD obejmują rodziny Athlon 64, Opteron, Turion, Neo, Phenom, FX, AX/EX/CX, Ryzen i EPYC. Procesory 64-bitowe Intela obejmują Core 2, Core iX, Celeron, Xeon oraz Pentium (wszystkie bazujące na architekturze Core 2 i późniejsze). Kilka ostatnich wersji starego Pentium 4 i Xeon także wspierają EM64T.

64-bitowe procesory AMD zostały wydane znacznie wcześniej niż Intela. Dlatego w Gentoo, z powodów historycznych, wszystkie architektury kompatybilne z x86-64 są określane mianem amd64. Stąd "AMD64" jest ogólnym odniesieniem do układów 64-bitowych, zarówno do AMD jak i Intel.

Jakie CFLAGS powinienem użyć?

Powinno się używać prostych parametrów w CFLAGS, aby uniknąć przyszłych problemów z systemem. Wspierane wartości dla CFLAGS to -O2 -march=native -pipe dla obu systemów, AMD oraz Intel (EM64T).

Jakie jądro powinienem użyć??

Możesz użyć prawie każde źródła jądra dostępne w Portage. Rekomendujemy używanie sys-kernel/gentoo-sources, ponieważ jest to jądro specjalnie zaprojektowane dla Gentoo Linux. Zawiera wiele specyficznych łatek dla AMD64 i dlatego jest to jedyne jądro oficjalnie wspierane przez Gentoo/AMD64.

Upewnij się, że masz włączoną opcję IA32_EMULATION w jądrze.

root #cd /usr/src/linux
root #make menuconfig
KERNEL Enabling IA32 emulation
Executable file formats / Emulations  --->
  [*] IA32 Emulation
Warning
Mogą wystąpić błędy w kompilacji na systemach multilib jeżeli dezaktywujesz tą opcję.

Czy doświadczę lepszej wydajności, jeśli użyję 64-bitowego systemu zamiast 32-bitowego ?

That is a difficult question to answer. In some cases, there may be a performance improvement, in other cases not. For everyday use, there is almost no difference between 64-bit and 32-bit. 64-bit is generally faster when it comes to floating point computing, which is normally the case in multimedia applications and 3D rendering. Linux.com's articles 64-bit performance in Gentoo Linux and 64-bit Linux and BSD are maturing steadily may be of interest. There's also a nice thread, Article: 64-bit performance in Gentoo Linux in the forums.

Most systems will now be 64-bit unless there is a specific requirement otherwise.

Co to jest multilib i jak mogę go użyć?

Every AMD64 processor is able to run 32-bit code as well as 64-bit code. However, a 32-bit application is unable to mix it with 64-bit libraries or vice versa. However, natively (without emulation) 32-bit applications can run if all shared libraries they need are available as 32-bit objects. Choose multilib support or not by selecting the according profile. The default is a multilib-enabled profile.

Warning
Switching from a no-multilib to a multilib-enabled profile is currently not supported, a decision to use the no-multilib profile must be very carefully considered. If in doubt, choose multilib.

Jak utworzyć 32-bitowy chroot?

Proszę, przeczytaj Przewodnik Chroot 32-bit.

Is it possible to upgrade from an x86 system to AMD64 by doing emerge -e @world?

Due to several differences between x86 (32-bit) and amd64 (64-bit) installations, it is impossible to upgrade this way. Please perform a fresh install using the AMD64 Handbook.

Note that binary files created on an x86 system most likely cannot be read by packages on an AMD64 system. In particular, some databases, such as OpenLDAP, cannot simply be copied as-is. A database would need to be dumped into an architecture-independent format, such as a text file, before attempting to restore it on an AMD64 system. Database files for MySQL, Berkley DB and SQLite are architecture-independent and can be moved freely after their corresponding daemons, if any, are cleanly shut down.

Hardware

Czy moje binarne sterowniki NVIDIA/ATI będą działały?

Yes, NVIDIA and ATI provide drivers that work on AMD64. Either x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers or x11-drivers/xf86-video-ati can be installed. See also the nvidia-drivers guide or the ATI FAQ.

How to use Cool'n'Quiet/PowerNow/SpeedStep features?

Custom kernel users must compile the kernel with support for these features. Enable the features below:

KERNEL Kernel options for Cool'n'Quiet/PowerNow/SpeedStep
Power management and ACPI options --->
  [*] Device power management core functionality
  [*] ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) Support --->
    <*>   Processor
    <*>     Thermal Zone
  CPU Frequency scaling --->
  [*] CPU Frequency scaling
         Default CPUFreq governor (ondemand) --->
  -*-   'performance' governor
  <*>   'userspace' governor for userspace frequency scaling
  -*-   'ondemand' cpufreq policy governor
  <*>   ACPI Processor P-States driver
  CPU Idle  --->
    -*- CPU idle PM support

Then install sys-power/cpupower and edit /etc/conf.d/cpupower with a preferred text editor.

FILE /etc/conf.d/cpupowerExample configuration
# Options when starting cpufreq (given to the `cpupower` program)
START_OPTS="--governor ondemand"
  
# Options when stopping cpufreq (given to the `cpupower` program)
STOP_OPTS="--governor performance"

Now run the following command to make sure the cpupower daemon is started every time the system boots:

root #rc-update add cpupower boot
Note
Read the Power Management Guide for more tips on CPU power management.

Aplikacje

Upon installing package foo, emerge says: (masked by: ~amd64 keyword)

This means that the package is still in the 'testing' tree. Please read Portage's manual page (man portage), the Mixing Software Branches chapter of the AMD64 Handbook, or accepting a keyword for a single package for more information.

Upon installing package foo, emerge says: (masked by: missing keyword)

This means that the package has not been tested yet. It does not necessarily mean that the package does not work. It can be unmasked by accepting another architecture (or set of architectures) for the package. The following example shows how to tell Portage to accept the installation of the given package, under any keyword:

root #echo "category/packagename **" >> /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords
root #emerge packagename

If the package works well, please file a bug on Gentoo's Bugzilla, so that the AMD64 team can keyword the package and other users can benefit.

Warning
Do not try to invoke commands like ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge packagename. It will most certainly break the Portage tree and render the system useless.

Inne zasoby

  • Project:AMD64
    This page is based on a document formerly found on our main website gentoo.org.
    The following people contributed to the original document: Simon Stelling, Luis Medinas, Gerald J. Normandin Jr., Xavier Neys,
    They are listed here because wiki history does not allow for any external attribution. If you edit the wiki article, please do not add yourself here; your contributions are recorded on each article's associated history page.