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KDE, popüler Plasma masaüstü ortamı da dahil çok sayıda uygulamayı üreten bir özgür yazılım topluluğudur.

Gentoo'da KDE desteği oldukça iyidir: Bu sebeple KDE4, KDE5 (KDE Framework5) ve uygulamaları ile beraber KDE temelli birçok yazılımı barındırmaktadır.

Gereksinimler

Profil

Important
Read relevant documentation before performing any profile changes.
Warning
Read the systemd documentation before changing to a systemd profile.

KDE4 veya Plasma(5) masaüstü kullanılacaksa, uygun profile (profili) seçmek, zorunlu olmasa da, kurulumu ve kullanımı kolaylaştıracağı için şiddetle tavsiye edilmektedir.

Seçebilmek için önce seçeneklerimizi liteleyelim:

root #eselect profile list
  [1]   default/linux/amd64/13.0
  [2]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/selinux
  [3]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop
  [4]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/gnome
  [5]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/gnome/systemd
  [6]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/kde
  [7]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/kde/systemd
  [8]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/plasma
  [9]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/plasma/systemd
  ...

Ardından doğru profili seçelim (X yerine seçtiğiniz profil numarasını getirin):

root #eselect profile set X

Tam bir OpenRC/KDE(4) ortamı isteniyorsa desktop/kde önerilmekte. Eğer OpenRC yerine systemd ile kullanılacaksa desktop/kde/systemd. Plasma 5 masaüstü için de; OpenRC ile kullanılacak ise desktop/plasma, systemd ile ise desktop/plasma/systemd seçiniz.

Servisler

KDE kurulumundan önce bazı servislerin kurulması/çalışır hale getirilmesi önerilmektedir. Zaten bunların büyük kısmı desktop/kde veya desktop profile kullanıldığında kurulumda gelmektedir. Bu servisler:

  • D-Bus: D-Bus uygulama iletişim servisini aktifleştirir.
  • polkit: Sistem genelindeki servislerin yetkilerini düzenlemek için polkit çatısını aktifleştirir.
  • udev: udev Linux dinamik ve kalıcı aygıt isimlendirme altyapısını etkinleştirir.
  • udisks: Depolama ile ilgili bazı servislere desteği açar.

Session tracker

Choose exactly one of:

  • elogind: Standalone logind package, default for desktop/plasma profile, extracted from systemd project for use with OpenRC or other init systems.
  • systemd: Uses the session tracker part of systemd. Users of systemd do not need to take any other initiative here.

Device manager

Choose exactly one of:

  • udev: Enables support for udev Linux dynamic and persistent device naming.
  • eudev: Fork of udev for better compatibility with older kernels and various toolchains.
  • systemd: Uses the device manager part of systemd. Users of systemd do not need to take any other initiative here.

Miscellaneous

  • D-Bus: Enables use of the D-Bus message bus system.
  • polkit: Enables the polkit framework for controlling privileges for system-wide services.
  • udisks: Enables support for some storage related services.

X servisi

Read and follow the instructions in the X server article to setup the X environment.

Plasma

Plasma 5 is the current generation of KDE's desktop environment, based on Qt 5 and KDE Frameworks 5.

Available versions

KDE Gentoo Ebuild repository Status
KDE Plasma 5.24.4 kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.24.4 gentoo Stable for amd64, arm64, and x86; testing for arm, ppc64, and riscv
KDE Plasma 5.24.5 kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.24.5 gentoo Stable for amd64, arm64, and x86; testing for arm, ppc64, and riscv
KDE Plasma 5.24 stable branch kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.24.49.9999 KDE Live version
KDE Plasma 5.25 stable branch kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.25.49.9999 KDE Live version
KDE Plasma master branch kde-plasma/plasma-meta-9999 KDE Live version
Note
Before proceeding, make sure to choose a Plasma profile.

Installation

The kde-plasma/plasma-meta package provides the full Plasma 5 desktop, configurable by a wealth of USE flags:

USE flags for kde-plasma/plasma-meta Merge this to pull in all Plasma 5 packages

accessibility Add support for accessibility (eg 'at-spi' library)
bluetooth Enable Bluetooth Support
browser-integration Enable integration with Chrome/Firefox with browser extensions
colord Enable kde-plasma/kwin color management via x11-misc/colord
crash-handler Pull in kde-plasma/drkonqi for assisted upstream crash reports
crypt Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-vault for encrypted vaults integration
desktop-portal Enable sys-apps/xdg-desktop-portal backend implementation for Plasma
discover Pull in resources management GUI; a centralised GHNS alternative and optional sys-apps/fwupd frontend
display-manager Pull in a graphical display manager
elogind Enable session tracking via sys-auth/elogind
firewall Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-firewall for system firewall administration
grub Pull in Breeze theme for sys-boot/grub
gtk Enable Breeze widget style and system settings module for GTK+
handbook Enable handbooks generation for packages by KDE
kwallet Enable support for KWallet auto-unlocking via kde-plasma/kwallet-pam
legacy-systray Add support for legacy applications using kde-plasma/xembed-sni-proxy
networkmanager Enable net-misc/networkmanager support
plymouth Pull in Breeze theme for sys-boot/plymouth
pulseaudio Install Plasma applet for PulseAudio volume management
sddm Pull in the x11-misc/sddm display manager and system settings module
sdk Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-sdk for Plasma development
smart Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-disks for disk health monitoring
systemd Enable use of systemd-specific libraries and features like socket activation or session tracking
thunderbolt Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-thunderbolt control center module
wallpapers Install wallpapers for the Plasma Workspace

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/plasma-meta

Alternatively, kde-plasma/plasma-desktop provides a very basic desktop, leaving users free to install only the extra packages they require - or rather, figure out missing features on their own.

Warning
Please note that installing just kde-plasma/plasma-desktop will exclude important packages needed for KDE to function, such as kde-plasma/powerdevil (power management, suspend and hibernate options), kde-plasma/systemsettings, and many more. This package should be used with the understanding that additional KDE packages will need to be installed to ensure a functioning environment. Do not expect support when using this package.

Starting Plasma

Display manager

SDDM (Simple Desktop Display Manager) is the recommended login manager and is pulled in automatically via kde-plasma/plasma-meta by default. This is the preferred option. Alternatively, LightDM can be used and pulled in by setting USE flag -sddm for kde-plasma/plasma-meta. Change the setting accordingly in /etc/conf.d/display-manager. Also, be sure to read through the SDDM page if further issues appear.

No display manager

Plasma can be started the old-fashioned way with startx, but extra care needs to be taken to ensure it gets a valid session.

FILE ~/.xinitrc
#!/bin/sh
exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session startplasma-x11

When using Wayland, Plasma can be launched with dbus-launch --exit-with-session startplasma-wayland

This can be added to a user's profile file which will be executed when logging in:

FILE ~/.profile
#!/bin/sh
dbus-launch --exit-with-session startplasma-wayland

Widgets

Many useful widgets are in the kde-plasma/kdeplasma-addons package (already pulled in by kde-plasma/plasma-meta):

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/kdeplasma-addons

System tray

Plasma 5 uses the StatusNotifier specification for systray icons [1]. As not all applications have been ported to the new system, some workarounds exist [2], and Plasma 5 has a means to convert old xembed-based system tray icons to StatusNotifier icons.

Legacy support is enabled by activating legacy-systray for kde-plasma/plasma-meta, which is pulling in kde-plasma/xembed-sni-proxy.

FILE /etc/portage/package.use/kde-plasma-settingsChange USE flags for kde-plasma/plasma-meta
# xembed system tray support for legacy applications
kde-plasma/plasma-meta legacy-systray

Pidgin

net-im/pidgin requires x11-plugins/pidgin-indicator. After install, the Ubuntu Indicator plugin can be found under Tools | Plugins.

KWallet

Many users will be introduced to kde-frameworks/kwallet, Plasma's encrypted password storage, while adding a (wireless) network connection after login or adding E-Mail accounts in kde-apps/kmail.

For managing KWallets, importing and exporting passwords, there is kde-apps/kwalletmanager:

root #emerge --ask kde-apps/kwalletmanager

KWallet auto-unlocking

kde-plasma/kwallet-pam provides a mechanism to avoid being subsequently asked for access to kwallet after login.

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/kwallet-pam

It requires the following setup:

  • For KWallet security, use classic blowfish encryption instead of GPG
  • Choose same password for login and kwallet
  • Configure a display manager with support for PAM - both x11-misc/sddm and x11-misc/lightdm fulfill that requirement:
FILE /etc/pam.d/sddmConfig lines for KWallet PAM unlocking via SDDM
-auth           optional        pam_kwallet5.so
-session        optional        pam_kwallet5.so auto_start
Note
For LightDM, /etc/pam.d/lightdm needs to be edited instead.
Note
If the filesystem containing your user's KWallet files is mounted by pam_mount upon logging on, you may need to copy ~/.local/share/kwalletd/kdewallet.salt to the same path on your root filesystem. Otherwise, PAM attempts to unlock KWallet before the home directory is available and fails. The file ~/.local/share/kwalletd/kdewallet.kwl which actually contains the encrypted KWallet passwords does not need to be copied.

Disabling KWallet

To disable the KWallet subsystem completely, edit the following file:

FILE ~/.config/kwalletrc
[Wallet]
Enabled=false

SSH/GPG Agent startup/shutdown scripts

ssh-agent scripts are located in /etc/xdg/plasma-workspace/env and /etc/xdg/plasma-workspace/shutdown. Shutdown scripts require executable bit set because they are not sourced. The Keychain article provides more information about this.

Non-root user authentication for dialogs

Some KDE dialogs such as printers, adding wireless networks and adding users require administrator authentication. This is handled through sys-auth/polkit and operates independently from app-admin/sudo. By default in Gentoo, the root account is the only administrator, and so even if a user account can run root commands through sudo, authentication in these KDE dialogs will fail.

Adding wireless networks using net-misc/networkmanager is allowed by a polkit rule which is part of the Gentoo package and already allows access for every user in the group plugdev. For other dialogs you need to configure the behavior manually: If you would like all users of the group wheel to be administrators, create a copy of /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/50-default.rules starting with a number lower than 50, and edit the line return ["unix-user:0"] to the following:

FILE /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/49-wheel.rulesAdministrator wheel group
polkit.addAdminRule(function(action, subject) {
    return ["unix-group:wheel"];
});

The Polkit wiki page provides more details on rules configuration.

Run GUI applications with root privileges

Warning
It could be a very bad idea to start GUI applications with root privileges, versus adding the regular user to the relevant group or simply just running the command unprivileged. Only use kdesu when absolutely necessary.

KDE Plasma has a utility in order to start graphical programs with root privileges. It is provided by kde-plasma/kde-cli-tools - if built with USE flag kdesu, a graphical frontend to kde-frameworks/kdesu is installed. This requires Xorg, and only works within X[3].

FILE /etc/portage/package.use/kde-plasma-settingsChange USE flags for kde-plasma/kde-cli-tools
# Build graphical frontend for kde-frameworks/kdesu (requires X)
kde-plasma/kde-cli-tools kdesu X

Remember to rebuild the package to pick up the changes:

root #emerge -1 kde-cli-tools

It can be used by invoking kdesu either from KRunner or a terminal emulator:

user $kdesu <program-name>

A message dialog will be displayed prompting for the root password.

Note
Some applications such as kwrite, dolphin etc. refuse to be opened with kdesu for security reasons.
Note
By default, kdesu internally uses su, which may not be preferred for some use cases. It is possible to use sudo or other sudo-compatible commands, by changing kdesurc:
FILE $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/kdesurcUse sudo instead of su in kdesu
[super-user-command]
super-user-command=sudo

Files

KDE uses XDG standard directories to it's configuration for Plasma and it's applications:

  • $XDG_CONFIG_HOME (defaults to $HOME/.config) - Configuration files of Plasma and KDE apps.
  • $XDG_DATA_HOME (defaults to $HOME/.local/share) - App data of Plasma and KDE apps.

Removal

Uninstall all packages

A possible way to completely remove Plasma by explicitly the kde-plasma/plasma-meta package and all software depending on it:

root #emerge --ask --depclean --verbose kde-plasma/plasma-meta
Warning
This will not just remove Plasma but also all other packages depending on it (unconditionally or through a USE flag dependency), such as e.g. plasma-pass[kde].

Clean up Portage definitions

Look in /etc/portage for any KDE/Plasma specific settings in package.mask, package.unmask, package.keywords and package.accept_keywords and clean up any definitions referring to Plasma packages.

Remove unneeded dependencies

After uninstalling any Plasma packages, make sure to ask Portage to uninstall any leftover dependencies:

root #emerge --ask --depclean  

Applications

Release Service consists of various applications and supporting libraries based on Qt 5/KDE Frameworks 5.

Available versions

KDE Gentoo Ebuild repository Status
KDE Gear 21.12.3 kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-21.12.3 gentoo Stable for amd64, arm64, and x86; testing for ppc64
KDE Gear 22.04.1 kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-22.04.1 gentoo Testing for amd64, arm64, ppc64, and x86
KDE Gear 22.04 stable branch kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-22.04.49.9999 KDE Live version
KDE Gear master branch kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-9999 KDE Live version

KDE Release Service is divided in the following meta packages:

Package name Description
kde-apps/kdeaccessibility-meta Accessibility applications and utilities.
kde-apps/kdeadmin-meta Administrative utilities, which helps in managing the system.
kde-apps/kdecore-meta Basic applications such as file browser, editor, terminal emulator.
kde-apps/kdeedu-meta Educational applications and games.
kde-apps/kdegames-meta Standard desktop games.
kde-apps/kdegraphics-meta Graphics applications such as image viewers, color pickers, etc.
kde-apps/kdemultimedia-meta Audio and video playback applications and services.
kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta Network applications and VNC services.
kde-apps/kdepim-meta PIM applications such as emailer, addressbook, organizer, etc.
kde-apps/kdesdk-meta Various development tools.
kde-apps/kdeutils-meta Standard desktop utilities such as a archiver, a calculator, etc.

Installation

The kde-apps/kde-apps-meta package provides the full Release Service bundle, but alternatively, one or several smaller meta packages from the list above may be picked instead:

root #emerge --ask kde-apps/kde-apps-meta

Yerelleştirme

Plasma-5 and Applications are shipping their localization per-package. Enable your localization in systemsettings.

KDE PIM

KDE PIM is a whole suite of applications to manage personal information including mail, calendar, contacts and more. It has several optional runtime dependencies to extend its functionality:

Frameworks

KDE Frameworks 5 is a collection of libraries and software frameworks that provide the foundation for KDE Plasma 5 and KDE Applications, but may be leveraged by any Qt application.

As Frameworks are mostly libraries and provide little user functionality, it's not necessary to install them manually - the required packages will be pulled in automatically as dependencies.

Available versions

KDE Gentoo Ebuild repository Status
KDE Frameworks 5.92.0 kde-frameworks/*-5.92.0 gentoo Stable for amd64, arm64, and x86; testing for arm, ppc64, and riscv
KDE Frameworks 5.94.0 kde-frameworks/*-5.94.0 gentoo Testing for amd64, arm, arm64, ppc64, riscv, and x86
KDE Frameworks master branch kde-frameworks/*-9999 KDE Live version

More KDE software

The most important KDE applications are in the Gentoo ebuild repository and many are located in the kde-apps and kde-misc categories.

Troubleshooting

Refer to the Troubleshooting sub-article.

Ayrıca bkz.

Harici kaynaklar

References