KDE

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KDE es una comunidad de software libre, que produce una amplia gama de aplicaciones, incluyendo el conocido entorno de escritorio Plasma.

El soporte para KDE en Gentoo es excelente, con un empaquetado completo de KDE Frameworks 5, Plasma 5 y aplicaciones de KDE 5, así como una amplia gama de programas diversos basados ​​en KDE.

Requisitos previos

Perfil

La elección de un perfil adecuado es recomendable aunque no obligatorio ya que establece una serie de parámetros USE, tanto globales como para programas específicos, que facilitan la instalación y garantizan una experiencia de KDE sin problemas.

Con el fin de elegir el perfil más adecuado, primero liste los que están disponibles:

root #eselect profile list
  [1]   default/linux/amd64/13.0
  [2]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/selinux
  [3]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop
  [4]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/gnome
  [5]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/gnome/systemd
  [6]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/plasma
  [7]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/plasma/systemd
  ...

A continuación, seleccione el perfil adecuado, sustituyendo X con el número del perfil correspondiente:

root #eselect profile set X

Para un completo entorno de escritorio KDE, se recomienda utilizar el perfil desktop/plasma, que se adapta para su uso con OpenRC. Si se usa systemd, elija desktop/kde/systemd en su lugar. Para un entorno de escritorio Plasma 5 elija desktop/plasma con OpenRC o desktop/plasma/systemd con systemd.

Servicios

Before installing KDE related software it is recommended that several other services are set up first. Part of that is done automatically if a desktop/plasma or desktop profile is used. These services are:

  • D-Bus: Enables use of the D-Bus message bus system.
  • polkit: Enables the polkit framework for controlling privileges for system-wide services.
  • udev: Enables support for udev Linux dynamic and persistent device naming.
  • udisks: Enables support for some storage related services.

Follow the links for information how to set up these services. Note that other USE flag combinations than set in this profile may technically be possible (especially if selected applications are run instead of a full KDE Plasma desktop environment), but may be unsupported, untested, or lead to unexpected loss of functionality.

Servidor X

Lea y siga las instrucciones del artículo X server para configurar el entorno X.

Plasma

Plasma 5 es la actual generación del entorno de escritorio de KDE, basado en Qt 5 y KDE Frameworks 5.

Versiones disponibles

KDE Gentoo Repository Status
KDE Plasma 5.8.5 LTS kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.8.5 gentoo Stable for amd64 and x86; Testing for arm
KDE Plasma 5.8.6 LTS kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.8.6 gentoo Testing for amd64, arm and x86
KDE Plasma 5.8 stable branch kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.8.49.9999 kde overlay Live version
KDE Plasma 5.9.3 kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.9.3 gentoo Testing for amd64, arm and x86
KDE Plasma 5.9 stable branch kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.9.49.9999 kde overlay Live version
KDE Plasma master branch kde-plasma/plasma-meta-9999 kde overlay Live version
Nota
Antes de continuar, asegurese de elegir un plasma profile. Usuarios de KDE 4 necesitarán tormar pasos extra.

Actualización desde Plasma 4

Información sobre como actualizar desde Plasma 4, migración y resolución de problemas, se puede encontrar en la página de actualización.

Instalación

The kde-plasma/plasma-meta package provides the full Plasma 5 suite, configured by the following USE flags:

USE flags for kde-plasma/plasma-meta Merge this to pull in all Plasma 5 packages

crypt Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-vault for encrypted vaults integration local
display-manager Pull in a graphical display manager local
grub Pull in Breeze theme for sys-boot/grub local
gtk Enable Breeze widget style and KCM for GTK2 and GTK3 local
handbook Enable handbooks generation for packages by KDE global
legacy-systray Add support for GTK+ applications using legacy xembed systray icons local
networkmanager Enable net-misc/networkmanager support global
pam Enable support for kwallet auto-unlocking local
plymouth Pull in Breeze theme for sys-boot/plymouth local
pulseaudio Install Plasma applet for PulseAudio volume management local
sddm Pull in the x11-misc/sddm display manager and KCM local
sdk Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-sdk for Plasma development local
wallpapers Install wallpapers for the Plasma Workspace local

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/plasma-meta

Alternatively, kde-plasma/plasma-desktop provides the basic desktop, leaving users free to install only the extra packages they require:

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/plasma-desktop
Nota
Please note that such installations will be missing important packages such as kde-plasma/powerdevil (power management, suspend and hibernate options) and kde-plasma/systemsettings if this alternative installation is used.

Widgets

Many useful widgets are in the kde-plasma/kdeplasma-addons package (already pulled in by kde-plasma/plasma-meta):

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/kdeplasma-addons

Display manager

SDDM (Simple Desktop Display Manager) is the recommended login manager and is pulled in automatically via kde-plasma/plasma-meta by default. This is the preferred option. Alternatively, LightDM can be used and pulled in by setting USE flag -sddm for kde-plasma/plasma-meta. Change the setting accordingly in /etc/conf.d/xdm. Also, be sure to read through the SDDM page if further issues appear.

KWallet auto-unlocking

Many users will be introduced to kde-frameworks/kwallet, Plasma's safe password management, while adding a (wireless) network connection after login. On many systems, there will actually be a second KWallet service present - kde-apps/kwalletd is there to provide the same password storage functions to kdelibs4-based applications. kde-plasma/kwallet-pam provides a mechanism to avoid being subsequently asked for access to kwallet after login.

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/kwallet-pam

It requires the following setup:

  • For KWallet security, use classic blowfish encryption instead of GPG
  • Choose same password for login and kwallet
  • Configure a display manager with support for PAM - both x11-misc/sddm and x11-misc/lightdm fulfill that requirement:
ARCHIVO /etc/pam.d/sddmAdding lines for KWallet PAM unlocking via SDDM
-auth           optional        pam_kwallet5.so
-session        optional        pam_kwallet5.so auto_start
# The following two lines will also unlock kwalletd for kdelibs4-based applications
-auth           optional        pam_kwallet.so kdehome=.kde4
-session        optional        pam_kwallet.so
Nota
For LightDM, /etc/pam.d/lightdm needs to be edited instead.

For managing kwallets, importing and exporting passwords, there is kde-apps/kwalletmanager:

root #emerge --ask kde-apps/kwalletmanager

For managing kwallets for kdelibs4-based applications like kopete or kmail:4:

root #emerge --ask kde-apps/kwalletmanager:4

SSH/GPG Agent startup/shutdown scripts

ssh-agent scripts are located in /etc/plasma/startup and /etc/plasma/shutdown. The Keychain article provides more information about this.

Applications

Releases consist of various applications and supporting libraries based on Qt 5/KDE Frameworks 5 as well as Qt 4/KDElibs 4, with the latter still being in long term support mode. In Portage, the distinction is made using slots 4 and 5. Porting is an ongoing process where each major release is making inroads to Frameworks 5, and therefore contains both well matured and newly ported applications. Note that it also means potential dependency conflicts when two packages depend on slot 4 and 5 of the same library that can not be installed at the same time - such packages are dropped from *-meta.

Versiones disponibles

KDE Gentoo Repository Status
KDE Applications 16.08.3 kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-16.08.3 gentoo Stable for amd64 and x86
KDE Applications 16.12.2 kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-16.12.2 gentoo Testing for amd64 and x86
KDE Applications 16.12 stable branch kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-16.12.49.9999 kde overlay Live version
KDE Applications master branch kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-9999 kde overlay Live version

KDE Applications is divided in the following meta packages:

Package name Description
kde-apps/kdeaccessibility-meta Accessibility applications and utilities.
kde-apps/kdeadmin-meta Administrative utilities, which helps in managing the system.
kde-apps/kdecore-meta Basic applications such as file browser, editor, terminal emulator.
kde-apps/kdeedu-meta Educational applications and games.
kde-apps/kdegames-meta Standard desktop games.
kde-apps/kdegraphics-meta Graphics applications such as image viewers, color pickers, etc.
kde-apps/kdemultimedia-meta Audio and video playback applications and services.
kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta Network applications and VNC services.
kde-apps/kdepim-meta PIM applications such as emailer, addressbook, organizer, etc.
kde-apps/kdesdk-meta Various development tools.
kde-apps/kdeutils-meta Standard desktop utilities such as a archiver, a calculator, etc.
kde-apps/kdewebdev-meta Web development tools.

Installation

The kde-apps/kde-apps-meta package provides the full Applications bundle, but alternatively, one or several smaller meta packages from the list above may be picked instead:

root #emerge --ask kde-apps/kde-apps-meta

Cambiar el idioma

While Frameworks and Plasma are shipping their translations per-package, localization of KDE Applications is provided via separate *-l10n packages. The nls USE flag is enabled by default for linux profiles, and it is used by KDE Applications meta packages to pull in the necessary dependencies.

If only a select few languages are desired, define the L10N variable in /etc/portage/make.conf. E.g. to use the German language, set:

ARCHIVO /etc/portage/make.confSetting the L10N variable for the German language
L10N="de"

To manually install these localization packages instead, use the following (complete) list or pick as desired:

root #emerge --ask kde-l10n kde4-l10n kdepim-l10n

While the first two contain translations for the majority of KDE Applications (slot 5 and 4), the latter directly corresponds to - and is only relevant to users of - kde-apps/kdepim-meta or its related packages.

KDE PIM

Available versions

In Portage, three variants of the KDE Personal Information Management (KDE PIM) suite (including kde-apps/kmail, kde-apps/kontact, and kde-apps/korganizer) are available.

KDE Gentoo Repository Status
KDE PIM 4.4.2016.01 kde-apps/kdepim-meta-4.4.2016.01 gentoo Stable for amd64 and x86
KDE PIM 4.14.11_pre20160211 kde-apps/kdepim-meta-4.14.11_pre20160211 gentoo Stable for amd64 and x86
KDE PIM 16.12.2 kde-apps/kdepim-meta-16.12.2 gentoo Testing for amd64 and x86

KDE PIM 4.14.11 and earlier

At the time of writing, the current stable version range is at 4.14.11, which includes an Akonadi-based kmail (also known as kmail2) and is still based on Qt 4/KDElibs 4.

In addition, a "noakonadi fork" is available as version 4.4.2016.01 (also known as kmail1). Adding a mask file to /etc/portage/package.mask is necessary to get it:

Both variants are beginning to conflict with newer versions of packages. Adding certain per-package USE flag settings can solve some conflicts currently:

ARCHIVO /etc/portage/package.use/kdepim-4
>=app-crypt/gpgme-1.8.0 -cxx -qt5
app-office/kmymoney:4 pim
>=kde-apps/kwalletd-16.04.3-r1 -gpg
>=kde-frameworks/kwallet-5.29.0-r1 -gpg
root #emerge --ask kde-apps/kdepim-meta

KDE PIM 16.12 and later

The latest upstream release based on Qt 5/KF 5 remains testing until it is deemed suitable for stable use, but testing is appreciated.

Most, but not all of the codebase has been ported from dev-qt/qtwebkit to dev-qt/qtwebengine which is based on Chromium's Blink. By default, this package sets and uses the system-ffmpeg USE flag, which comes down to a media-video/ffmpeg package dependency, so users preferring media-video/libav for the rest of their system will need to switch off that USE flag.

Unfortunately, not all of the KDE Applications are compatible yet, with some packages still depending on Qt 4/KDElibs 4 based parts that can not be installed with modern KDE PIM at the same time. That includes kde-apps/kopete, kde-apps/klinkstatus, and possibly other packages outside of the kde-apps category. By default, these packages are no longer installed by kde-apps/kde-apps-meta.

The following commands will deselect any packages from world that would still depend on these conflicting packages:

root #equery -q d kde-apps/kdepim-common-libs | sed -e "s/-[0-9].*//" | xargs emerge --deselect
root #equery -q d kde-apps/kdepimlibs | sed -e "s/-[0-9].*//" | xargs emerge --deselect
root #equery -q d kde-apps/akonadi | sed -e "s/-[0-9].*//" | xargs emerge --deselect
Nota
This requires app-portage/gentoolkit to be installed. The Gentoolkit article provides more information about this useful utility.

Some conflicts with older packages may be solved by adding per-package USE flag settings:

ARCHIVO /etc/portage/package.use/kdepim-16.12
app-accessibility/simon -pim
app-office/calligra:4 -pim
kde-apps/kget:4 -gpg
<=kde-apps/kwalletd-16.04.3:4 -gpg
kde-apps/pykde4 -akonadi
kde-misc/tellico:4 -addressbook

With all that prepared, KDE PIM is ready to be installed:

root #emerge --ask kde-apps/kdepim-meta

kdesu5

The utility that is used to run GUI programs as root is provided by kde-plasma/kde-cli-tools. If built with USE flag kdesu, a graphical frontend to kde-frameworks/kdesu is installed, which can be used by invoking kdesu5.

As always, ensure that the command actually needs to run as root, versus adding the regular user to the relevant groups or simply just running the command unprivileged.

Frameworks

KDE Frameworks 5 es una colección de bibliotecas y de software frameworks que proporcionan la base para KDE Plasma 5 y las aplicaciones de KDE 5, pero puede ser aprovechado por cualquier aplicación Qt.

Como los frameworks son, en su mayoría, bibliotecas y proporcionan poca funcionalidad de usuario, ello hace que no sea necesaria su instalación de forma manual —los paquetes requeridos serán obtenidos automáticamente, así como sus dependencias—.

Available versions

KDE Gentoo Repository Status
KDE Frameworks 5.29.0 kde-frameworks/*-5.29.0 gentoo Stable for amd64 and x86; Testing for arm
KDE Frameworks 5.31.0 kde-frameworks/*-5.31.0 gentoo Testing for amd64, arm and x86
KDE Frameworks master branch kde-frameworks/*-9999 kde overlay Live version

Más software para KDE

The most important KDE applications are in the Gentoo repository and many are located in the kde-apps and kde-misc categories.

Véase también

External links