KDE

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KDE es una comunidad de software libre, que produce una amplia gama de aplicaciones, incluyendo el conocido entorno de escritorio Plasma.

El soporte para KDE en Gentoo es excelente, con un empaquetado completo de KDE Frameworks 5, Plasma 5 y aplicaciones de KDE 5, así como una amplia gama de programas diversos basados ​​en KDE.

Requisitos previos

Perfil

La elección de un perfil adecuado es recomendable aunque no obligatorio ya que establece una serie de parámetros USE, tanto globales como para programas específicos, que facilitan la instalación y garantizan una experiencia de KDE sin problemas.

Con el fin de elegir el perfil más adecuado, primero liste los que están disponibles:

root #eselect profile list
  [1]   default/linux/amd64/13.0
  [2]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/selinux
  [3]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop
  [4]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/gnome
  [5]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/gnome/systemd
  [6]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/kde
  [7]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/kde/systemd
  [8]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/plasma
  [9]   default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/plasma/systemd
  ...

A continuación, seleccione el perfil adecuado, sustituyendo X con el número del perfil correspondiente:

root #eselect profile set X

Para un completo entorno de escritorio KDE, se recomienda utilizar el perfil desktop/plasma, que se adapta para su uso con OpenRC. Si se usa systemd, elija desktop/kde/systemd en su lugar. Para un entorno de escritorio Plasma 5 elija desktop/plasma con OpenRC o desktop/plasma/systemd con systemd.

Servicios

Antes de instalar KDE SC se recomienda instalar previamente otros servicios. En parte, ello se hace automáticamente si se utiliza un perfil desktop/kde o desktop. Estos servicios son:

  • D-Bus: permite el uso del sistema bus para los mensajes de D-Bus.
  • polkit: activa el framework polkit para controlar los privilegios de los servicios en todo el sistema.
  • udev: activa el soporte de udev para nominar dispositivos de forma dinámica y permanente en Línux.
  • udisks: activa el soporte para algunos servicios relacionados con el almacenamiento.

Session tracker

Choose exactly one of:

  • elogind: Standalone logind package extracted from systemd project for use with OpenRC or other init systems.
  • systemd: Uses the session tracker part of systemd. Users of systemd do not need to take any other initiative here.
  • consolekit: Framework for defining and tracking users, login sessions, and seats. It is currently default for the desktop/plasma profile.

For Wayland support, a logind implementation is required. Gentoo provides elogind as an alternative to systemd.

Device manager

Choose exactly one of:

  • eudev: Gentoo's fork of udev with the goal of obtaining better compatibility. It is the default for the desktop/plasma profile.
  • udev: Enables support for udev Linux dynamic and persistent device naming.
  • systemd: Uses the device manager part of systemd. Users of systemd do not need to take any other initiative here.

Miscellaneous

  • D-Bus: Enables use of the D-Bus message bus system.
  • polkit: Enables the polkit framework for controlling privileges for system-wide services.
  • udisks: Enables support for some storage related services.

Servidor X

Lea y siga las instrucciones del artículo X server para configurar el entorno X.

Package conflicts

KDE Plasma and Applications come with many dependencies. Some of these dependencies will predetermine package choices where otherwise there would be options to choose from.

Plasma

Plasma 5 es la actual generación del entorno de escritorio de KDE, basado en Qt 5 y KDE Frameworks 5.

Versiones disponibles

KDE Gentoo Ebuild repository Status
KDE Plasma 5.14.3 kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.14.3 gentoo Stable for amd64 and x86; Testing for arm and arm64
KDE Plasma 5.14.5 kde-plasma/plasma-meta-5.14.5 gentoo Testing for amd64, arm, arm64 and x86
KDE Plasma master branch kde-plasma/plasma-meta-9999 KDE Live version
Nota
Antes de continuar, asegurese de elegir un plasma profile. Usuarios de KDE 4 necesitarán tormar pasos extra.

Instalación

El paquetekde-plasma/plasma-meta proporciona la suit completa de Plasma 5, configurada por los siguientes USE flags:

USE flags for kde-plasma/plasma-meta Merge this to pull in all Plasma 5 packages

bluetooth Enable Bluetooth Support
browser-integration Enable integration with Chrome/Firefox with browser extensions
consolekit Enable sys-auth/consolekit support instead of logind session tracking
crypt Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-vault for encrypted vaults integration
desktop-portal Enable sys-apps/xdg-desktop-portal backend implementation for Plasma
discover Pull in resources management GUI; a centralised GHNS alternative and optional sys-apps/fwupd frontend
display-manager Pull in a graphical display manager
elogind Use sys-auth/elogind for session tracking
grub Pull in Breeze theme for sys-boot/grub
gtk Enable Breeze widget style and system settings module for GTK+
handbook Enable handbooks generation for packages by KDE
legacy-systray Add support for legacy applications using kde-plasma/xembed-sni-proxy
networkmanager Enable net-misc/networkmanager support
pam Enable support for kwallet auto-unlocking
plymouth Pull in Breeze theme for sys-boot/plymouth
pm-utils Enable support for suspend/resume with sys-power/pm-utils when using sys-auth/consolekit
pulseaudio Install Plasma applet for PulseAudio volume management
qrcode Enable support for easy WiFi network sharing using QR codes with kde-plasma/plasma-nm
sddm Pull in the x11-misc/sddm display manager and system settings module
sdk Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-sdk for Plasma development
systemd Enable use of systemd-specific libraries and features like socket activation or session tracking
thunderbolt Pull in kde-plasma/plasma-thunderbolt control center module
wallpapers Install wallpapers for the Plasma Workspace

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/plasma-meta

Alternatively, kde-plasma/plasma-desktop provides a very basic desktop, leaving users free to install only the extra packages they require - or rather, figure out missing features on their own:

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/plasma-desktop
Nota
Please note that such installations will be missing important packages such as kde-plasma/powerdevil (power management, suspend and hibernate options) and kde-plasma/systemsettings if this alternative installation is used.

By default the classic tree view of kde-plasma/systemsettings is not enabled. The following USE flag will enable it:

ARCHIVO /etc/portage/package.use/systemsettingsEnable classic tree view
kde-plasma/systemsettings classic

Recompile systemsettings with new USE flags:

root #emerge --ask --changed-use kde-plasma/systemsettings

Widgets

Muchos útiles widgets se encuentran en el paquete kde-plasma/kdeplasma-addons (el cuál ya es incluido en kde-plasma/plasma-meta):

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/kdeplasma-addons

Gestor de pantallas

SDDM (Simple Desktop Display Manager) is the recommended login manager and is pulled in automatically via kde-plasma/plasma-meta by default. This is the preferred option. Alternatively, LightDM can be used and pulled in by setting USE flag -sddm for kde-plasma/plasma-meta. Change the setting accordingly in /etc/conf.d/xdm. Also, be sure to read through the SDDM page if further issues appear.

SDDM does not yet support multiseat, while LightDM does.

No display manager

Plasma can be started the old-fashioned way with startx, but extra care needs to be taken to ensure it gets a valid session. The following solution is limited to ConsoleKit:

ARCHIVO ~/.xinitrc
#!/bin/sh
exec ck-launch-session dbus-launch --sh-syntax --exit-with-session startkde

System tray

Plasma 5 uses the StatusNotifier specification for systray icons [1]. As not all applications have been ported to the new system, some workarounds exist [2], and Plasma 5 has a means to convert old xembed-based system tray icons to StatusNotifier icons.

Legacy support is enabled by activating legacy-systray for kde-plasma/plasma-meta, which is pulling in kde-plasma/xembed-sni-proxy.

root #echo "kde-plasma/plasma-meta legacy-systray" >> /etc/portage/package.use/plasma-systray

Pidgin

net-im/pidgin requires x11-plugins/pidgin-indicator. After install, the Ubuntu Indicator plugin can be found under Tools | Plugins.

KWallet

Many users will be introduced to kde-frameworks/kwallet, Plasma's encrypted password storage, while adding a (wireless) network connection after login or adding E-Mail accounts in kde-apps/kmail.

For managing KWallets, importing and exporting passwords, there is kde-apps/kwalletmanager:

root #emerge --ask kde-apps/kwalletmanager

KWallet auto-unlocking

kde-plasma/kwallet-pam provides a mechanism to avoid being subsequently asked for access to kwallet after login.

root #emerge --ask kde-plasma/kwallet-pam

It requires the following setup:

  • For KWallet security, use classic blowfish encryption instead of GPG
  • Choose same password for login and kwallet
  • Configure a display manager with support for PAM - both x11-misc/sddm and x11-misc/lightdm fulfill that requirement:
ARCHIVO /etc/pam.d/sddmConfig lines for KWallet PAM unlocking via SDDM
-auth           optional        pam_kwallet5.so
-session        optional        pam_kwallet5.so auto_start
Nota
For LightDM, /etc/pam.d/lightdm needs to be edited instead.
Nota
If the filesystem containing your user's KWallet files is mounted by pam_mount upon logging on, you may need to copy ~/.local/share/kwalletd/kdewallet.salt to the same path on your root filesystem. Otherwise, PAM attempts to unlock KWallet before the home directory is available and fails. The file ~/.local/share/kwalletd/kdewallet.kwl which actually contains the encrypted KWallet passwords does not need to be copied.

Disabling KWallet

To disable the KWallet subsystem completely, edit the following file:

ARCHIVO ~/.config/kwalletrc
[Wallet]
Enabled=false

SSH/GPG Agent startup/shutdown scripts

ssh-agent scripts are located in /etc/plasma/startup and /etc/plasma/shutdown. The Keychain article provides more information about this.

Run GUI applications with root privileges

Advertencia
It could be a very bad idea to start GUI applications with root privileges, versus adding the regular user to the relevant group or simply just running the command unprivileged. Only use kdesu when absolutely necessary.

KDE Plasma has a utility in order to start graphical programs with root privileges. It is provided by kde-plasma/kde-cli-tools - if built with USE flag kdesu, a graphical frontend to kde-frameworks/kdesu is installed, which can be used by invoking kdesu. This can be done either from KRunner or a terminal emulator:

user $kdesu <program-name>

A message dialog will be displayed prompting for the root password.

Nota
Some applications such as kwrite, dolphin etc. refuse to be opened with kdesu for security reasons.

Applications

Releases consist of various applications and supporting libraries based on Qt 5/KDE Frameworks 5.

Versiones disponibles

KDE Gentoo Ebuild repository Status
KDE Applications 18.08.3 kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-18.08.3 gentoo Stable for amd64 and x86
KDE Applications 18.12.1 kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-18.12.1 gentoo Testing for amd64 and x86
KDE Applications 18.12 stable branch kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-18.12.49.9999 KDE Live version
KDE Applications master branch kde-apps/kde-apps-meta-9999 KDE Live version

KDE Applications is divided in the following meta packages:

Package name Description
kde-apps/kdeaccessibility-meta Accessibility applications and utilities.
kde-apps/kdeadmin-meta Administrative utilities, which helps in managing the system.
kde-apps/kdecore-meta Basic applications such as file browser, editor, terminal emulator.
kde-apps/kdeedu-meta Educational applications and games.
kde-apps/kdegames-meta Standard desktop games.
kde-apps/kdegraphics-meta Graphics applications such as image viewers, color pickers, etc.
kde-apps/kdemultimedia-meta Audio and video playback applications and services.
kde-apps/kdenetwork-meta Network applications and VNC services.
kde-apps/kdepim-meta PIM applications such as emailer, addressbook, organizer, etc.
kde-apps/kdesdk-meta Various development tools.
kde-apps/kdeutils-meta Standard desktop utilities such as a archiver, a calculator, etc.

Installation

The kde-apps/kde-apps-meta package provides the full Applications bundle, but alternatively, one or several smaller meta packages from the list above may be picked instead:

root #emerge --ask kde-apps/kde-apps-meta

Cambiar el idioma

Plasma-5 and Applications are shipping their localization per-package. Enable your localization in systemsettings.

KDE PIM

KDE PIM is a whole suite of applications to manage personal information including mail, calendar, contacts and more. It has several optional runtime dependencies to extend its functionality:

Frameworks

KDE Frameworks 5 es una colección de bibliotecas y de software frameworks que proporcionan la base para KDE Plasma 5 y las aplicaciones de KDE 5, pero puede ser aprovechado por cualquier aplicación Qt.

Como los frameworks son, en su mayoría, bibliotecas y proporcionan poca funcionalidad de usuario, ello hace que no sea necesaria su instalación de forma manual —los paquetes requeridos serán obtenidos automáticamente, así como sus dependencias—.

Available versions

KDE Gentoo Ebuild repository Status
KDE Frameworks 5.52.0 kde-frameworks/*-5.52.0 gentoo Stable for amd64 and x86, Testing for arm
KDE Frameworks 5.54.0 kde-frameworks/*-5.54.0 gentoo Testing for amd64, arm and x86
KDE Frameworks master branch kde-frameworks/*-9999 KDE Live version

Más software para KDE

Las aplicaciones para KDE más importantes están en el árbol portage y muchas se encuentran en las categorías kde-apps y kde-misc.

Troubleshooting

Refer to the Troubleshooting sub-article.

Véase también

Recursos externos

References