From Gentoo Wiki
Jump to:navigation Jump to:search
This page is a translated version of the page Xfce and the translation is 24% complete.
Outdated translations are marked like this.

Secondo xfce.org: "Xfce è un ambiente desktop per sistemi operativi Unix-like. Punta ad essere veloce e leggero in termini di risorse di sistema, rimanendo comunque visivamente accattivante e facile da usare."

Selecting a profile

Read relevant documentation before performing any profile changes.

Using the basic desktop profile will provide a good set of defaults for Xfce. Other profiles can be used, but this gives a good balance between dependencies and usability, all else aside. To select the desktop profile:

root #eselect profile set default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop

Evitare dipendenze non necessarie

app-text/poppler e dev-util/cmake hanno +qt4 impostata in maniera predefinita:

FILE /etc/portage/package.use/xfceRimuovere la USE flag qt4 per poppler e cmake
app-text/poppler -qt4
dev-util/cmake -qt4

Naturalmente, -qt4 può essere impostata globalmente in /etc/portage/make.conf se lo si desidera.


This is an optional step to install xfce-extra/xfce4-notifyd in place of x11-misc/notification-daemon. Skip this section if the choice of notification daemon is unimportant.

Emerging xfce-base/xfce4-meta will pull in the virtual/notification-daemon dependency. This virtual dependency is designed to insure that Xfce will be provided with a notification-daemon, whatever suitable software the user chooses to fulfill this role.

By default, virtual/notification-daemon will satisfy this dependency by drawing in GNOME's x11-misc/notification-daemon package. Xfce users may prefer to use xfce-extra/xfce4-notifyd, if a notification-daemon has not already been installed.

By installing xfce-extra/xfce4-notifyd before emerging Xfce, the virtual package virtual/notification-daemon will use xfce4-notifyd, and pull in no other packages. Use the --oneshot option to avoid adding xfce4-notifyd to the world file:

root #emerge --ask --oneshot xfce-extra/xfce4-notifyd

Now proceed with the installation.


USE flags

USE flags for xfce-base/xfce4-meta The Xfce Desktop Environment (meta package)

archive Install app-arch/xarchiver.
calendar Add support for calendars (not using mcal!)
cdr Add support for CD writer hardware
editor Install the app-editors/mousepad text editor.
image Install the media-gfx/ristretto image viewer.
media Install the media-video/parole media player.
minimal Install a very minimal build (disables, for example, plugins, fonts, most drivers, non-critical features)
mpd Install the media-sound/xfmpc MPD client.
pulseaudio Add sound server support via media-libs/libpulse (may be PulseAudio or PipeWire)
remote-fs Install the x11-misc/gigolo frontend to manage remote filesystem connections.
search Install the dev-util/catfish search tool frontend.
svg Add support for SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics)
upower Enable power management support


Emerge xfce-base/xfce4-meta for a default set of Xfce packages, to get a reasonably complete desktop environment:

root #emerge --ask xfce-base/xfce4-meta

The xfce-base/xfce4-meta package will provide the following user-facing applications, plus some libraries and system software:

Package Description
x11-terms/xfce4-terminal Terminal emulator that integrates well with Xfce, "friendlier" than the standard xterm program.
xfce-base/xfce4-panel Desktop panel with application launchers, panel menus, a workspace switcher, and more.
xfce-base/xfce4-settings Configuration system for the Xfce desktop environment, providing configuration dialogs and tools.
xfce-base/thunar Thunar is Xfce's file manager.
xfce-base/xfce4-appfinder Application finder.
xfce-base/thunar-volman Manages removable media and drives.
xfce-base/tumbler File previewer for Thunar.
xfce-base/xfce4-power-manager An application to monitor and manage power usage (especially important for laptops). Choose maximum-performance or battery-saving modes. Adjust screen brightness and setup hibernate, suspend, and shutdown actions (i.e., when the lid is shut or buttons are pressed). Can warn when the battery reaches certain levels, or even turn off the machine. Includes panel plugins to display battery/charging status, and control brightness.
xfce-extra/xfce4-pulseaudio-plugin Volume control for the panel. media-sound/volumeicon may be an option for systems without pulseaudio.

To see everything that is installed by xfce-base/xfce4-meta, see the dependency tab for that package on packages.gentoo.org.

Naturalmente, è anche possibile selezionare solo i pacchetti necessari:

Applicazioni aggiuntive

Esiste un gran numero di applicazioni aggiuntive facenti parte di Xfce.

Package Description
app-cdr/xfburn CD burning application.
app-editors/mousepad Lightweight text editor.
x11-themes/xfwm4-themes Several window-manager themes.
xfce-extra/thunar-archive-plugin Plugin for Thunar to work with archives; uses app-arch/file-roller.
xfce-extra/xfce4-battery-plugin Displays battery percentage, time remaining, power source (AC or battery), fan status, warnings, and can even be configured to execute commands at certain power levels, which can be used to put the laptop into hibernate mode when the battery is almost exhausted.
xfce-extra/xfce4-mount-plugin One-click mounting of devices listed in /etc/fstab.
xfce-extra/xfce4-sensors-plugin Monitor hardware sensors, such as CPU temperature, fan RPM, hard drive temp, motherboard voltage, and more.
xfce-extra/xfce4-verve-plugin A small command line embedded into the panel; quicker than opening up another terminal to run a command.

This is just a partial selection of packages available in the Gentoo repository, see xfce-extra , or use eix (eix --category xfce-extra), to see packages from the xfce-extra category. See also https://www.xfce.org/projects/ for more information.

Le seguenti applicazioni funzionano bene in Xfce e costituiscono un ambiente desktop di base.

Package Description
x11-misc/alacarte GNOME's menu editor works fine in Xfce.
x11-terms/tilda Lightweight quake-style terminal emulator.


Launching Xfce

Xfce can either be run from a terminal after login, launched automatically after login, or be started by a graphical display manager that will greet the user and ask for login details.

Avviare Xfce senza un display manager

startx e startxfce4 sono due delle opzioni immediatamente disponibili per avviare Xfce senza usare un display manager.


Se si usa startx, creare un file ~/.xinitrc con il seguente contenuto:

FILE ~/.xinitrcAvviare xfce4 all'invocazione di startx
exec startxfce4

If experiencing authorization or permissions issues, see the troubleshooting section.


Per lanciare il desktop Xfce4 scrivere semplicemente startxfce4 nel terminale e premere invio:

user $startxfce4

Display manager

È possibile usare un display manager per avviare Xfce. Fare riferimento all'articolo display manager per configurare un display manager.

La maggior parte dei display manager usa file

  • .desktop per configurare le sessioni disponibili. Di seguito è riportato un file desktop di esempio:
FILE xfce4.desktopFile desktop di Xfce4 per display manager
[Desktop Entry]
Comment=Usa questa sessione per eseguire Xfce 4 come ambiente desktop

Il file desktop va posto nel percorso giusto per il display manager.


Xfce è un ambiente desktop e come tale può essere configurato secondo le necessità di (quasi) qualunque utente. In questa sezione viene coperto un gran numero di aspetti popolari (o più difficili).

Tasti del volume

Installare xfce-extra/xfce4-volumed per gestire i tasti del volume:

root #emerge --ask xfce-extra/xfce4-volumed-pulse

media-sound/tudor-volumed may be an option for systems not using pulseaudio.

Eseguire xfce4-keyboard-settings per collegare i seguenti tasti:

  • Tasto volume su: amixer set Master 5%+
  • Tasto volume giù: amixer set Master 5%-
  • Tasto muto: amixer set Master toggle

Temi GTK+ 3 coerenti

Un'altra opzione consiste nell'usare il tema Greybird, che ha supporto a GTK+ 2, GTK+ 3, xfwm4, emerald e metacity:

root #emerge --ask x11-themes/greybird

Cliccare su Menù Xfce -> Impostazioni -> Aspetto. Oppure eseguire xfce4-appearance-settings. Selezionare "Greybird" dalla lista "Stile".

Ora le applicazioni GTK+ 2 e GTK+ 3 dovrebbero avere un aspetto coerente.

GTK client side decorations

XFCE by default disables GTK client side decorations. If one wishes to enable them, they can set GTK_CSD=1 environment variable. Apps like Firefox use client side decorations to hide their own title bar.

Altri temi

Altri temi disponibili in Portage che sono compatibili con XFCE possono essere installati seguendo la lista seguente:

root #emerge --ask x11-themes/clearlooks-phenix x11-themes/gnome-themes-standard x11-themes/gtk-engines-aurora x11-themes/light-themes x11-themes/murrine-themes x11-themes/nimbus x11-themes/oxygen-molecule x11-themes/redhat-artwork x11-themes/shiki-colors x11-themes/tactile3 x11-themes/zukini

Risoluzione dei problemi

Abilitare lo scatto verticale alle finestre

La maggior parte degli ambienti desktop moderni ha lo scatto delle finestre verticali abilitato automaticamente. Ciò esiste anche in Xfce ma non è automatico. Per abilitarlo, navigare in: ImpostazioniGestore finestreTab Avanzate.

  • Assicurarsi che la casella "Snap windows to screen border" sia spuntata.
  • Assicurarsi che le caselle sotto "Wrap workspaces when reaching the screen edge" NON siano spuntate. Esse interferiscono con lo scatto delle finestre verticali.

Una volta che le caselle sono impostate dovrebbe essere possibile trascinare una finestra a destra o sinistra dello schermo facendo sì che essa si ridimensioni al 50% dell'ampiezza dello schermo.

Le scorciatoie da tastiera possono essere impostate con il tipico comportamento Maiusc+ o Maiusc+. Navigare su ImpostazioniGestore finestreScheda Tastiera

Impostare "Tile window to the left" e "Tile window to the right" con le combinazioni Maiusc+ e Maiusc+ rispettivamente.

Il mixer audio si lamenta dell'eseguibile pavucontrol mancante

Cliccando l'icona speaker (audio) nel pannello e poi selezionando Mixer audio... si riceve un messaggio del tipo "eseguibile pavucontrol non trovato".

La soluzione sta nell'installare media-sound/pavucontrol:

root #emerge --ask media-sound/pavucontrol

Xfce4-screensaver unable to unlock

Xfce-screensaver uses gnome-keyring by default to authenticate. By applying the installation method above, gnome-keyring will not be pulled and pam will be unable to service the default configuration installed in /etc/pam.d/xfce4-screensaver. Either pull gnome-keyring, otherwise the file should be modified to allow system-auth to be used on passwords:

FILE /etc/pam.d/xfce4-screensaver
auth include system-auth
password include system-auth

Authorization or permissions issues

When experiencing authorization or permissions issues within xfce4 in an OpenRC profile (symptoms include being unable to open power manager and unable to suspend/hibernate) make sure that sys-auth/elogind is installed and properly configured, and that the elogind USE flag is globally enabled.

If launching with startx, replace the appropriate line in ~/.xinitrc with the following:

FILE ~/.xinitrcAvviare xfce4 in maniera corretta con startx
ck-launch-session dbus-launch --sh-syntax --exit-with-session xfce4-session

Dual-monitors get mirrored after monitor suspend

There are (at least) three ways to solve this issue. First is to save the display settings as the default monitor layout profile, then enable that profile as "new monitors connect". There's also the option to show a dialog whenever new monitors are detected, which will default to the profile instead of mirroring, when one is available. Navigate to Settings -> Display -> Advanced to find these options. Remember to configure the display settings before saving the first profile.

2nd way is to kill xfsettingsd after logging to the Xfce session. However this will also make some functionality unavailable, such as global hotkeys. A custom script can be created that kills the service, and add that to the autostarting applications list.

3rd is to have a custom script that can be executed via a .desktop icon on the desktop, panel, or ran manually each time the monitors are turned on.

Review the monitor IDs using the xrandr command.

The custom script could look something like the following:

FILE ~/bin/configuremonitors.shconfiguremonitors.sh
xrandr --output HDMI-A-0 --right-of DisplayPort-0 --auto

Vedere anche

  • Guida a Xfce - Una guida all'installazione e alla configurazione altamente dettagliata. Consultarla per ottenere tutti i dettagli succosi relativi a Gentoo!