Xfce

From Gentoo Wiki
Jump to:navigation Jump to:search
This page is a translated version of the page Xfce and the translation is 11% complete.
Outdated translations are marked like this.
Other languages:
English • ‎español • ‎français • ‎italiano • ‎português do Brasil • ‎русский • ‎فارسی • ‎中文(中国大陆)‎ • ‎日本語 • ‎한국어

Pour citer xfce.org: "Xfce est un environnement de bureau léger pour les systèmes d'exploitation Unix-like. Son but est d'être rapide et d'utiliser de moins de ressources système, tout en restant visuellement attractif et simple d'utilisation."

Prerequisites

Selecting a profile

Important
Read relevant documentation before performing any profile changes.

Using the basic desktop profile will provide a good set of defaults for Xfce. Other profiles can be used, but this gives a good balance between dependencies and usability, all else aside. To select the desktop profile:

root #eselect profile set default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop

Éviter les dépendances inutiles

app-text/poppler a +qt5 par défaut:

FILE /etc/portage/package.use/xfceDésactiver le USE flag qt5 pour poppler
app-text/poppler -qt5

Bien sûr, -qt5 peut aussi être définit globallement dans /etc/portage/make.conf si on le désire.

xfce4-notifyd

This is an optional step to install xfce-extra/xfce4-notifyd in place of x11-misc/notification-daemon. Skip this next section if the choice of notification daemon is unimportant.

Emerging xfce-base/xfce4-meta will pull in the virtual/notification-daemon dependency. This virtual dependency is designed to insure that Xfce will be provided with a notification-daemon, whatever suitable software the user chooses to fulfill this role.

By default, virtual/notification-daemon will satisfy this dependency by drawing in GNOME's x11-misc/notification-daemon package. Xfce users may prefer to use xfce-extra/xfce4-notifyd, if a notification-daemon has not already been installed.

By installing xfce-extra/xfce4-notifyd before emerging Xfce, the virtual package virtual/notification-daemon will use xfce4-notifyd, and pull in no other packages. Use the --oneshot option to avoid adding xfce4-notifyd to the world file:

root #emerge --ask --oneshot xfce-extra/xfce4-notifyd

Now proceed with the installation.

Installation

USE flags

USE flags for xfce-base/xfce4-meta The Xfce Desktop Environment (meta package)

minimal Install a very minimal build (disables, for example, plugins, fonts, most drivers, non-critical features)
pulseaudio Add support for PulseAudio sound server
svg Add support for SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics)
upower Enable power management support

Emerge

Emerge xfce-base/xfce4-meta for a default set of Xfce packages, to get a reasonably complete desktop environment:

root #emerge --ask xfce-base/xfce4-meta


The xfce-base/xfce4-meta package will provide the following user-facing applications, plus some libraries and system software:

Package Description
x11-terms/xfce4-terminal Terminal emulator that integrates well with Xfce, "friendlier" than the standard xterm program.
xfce-base/xfce4-panel Desktop panel with application launchers, panel menus, a workspace switcher, and more.
xfce-base/xfce4-settings Configuration system for the Xfce desktop environment, providing configuration dialogs and tools.
xfce-base/thunar Thunar is Xfce's file manager.
xfce-base/xfce4-appfinder Application finder.
xfce-extra/thunar-volman Manages removable media and drives.
xfce-extra/tumbler File previewer for Thunar.
xfce-extra/xfce4-power-manager An application to monitor and manage power usage (especially important for laptops). Choose maximum-performance or battery-saving modes. Adjust screen brightness and setup hibernate, suspend, and shutdown actions (i.e., when the lid is shut or buttons are pressed). Can warn when the battery reaches certain levels, or even turn off the machine. Includes panel plugins to display battery/charging status, and control brightness.
xfce-extra/xfce4-pulseaudio-plugin Volume control for the panel. media-sound/volumeicon may be an option for systems without pulseaudio.

Too see everything that is installed by xfce-base/xfce4-meta, see the dependency tab for that package on pgo.

Bien sûr, il est aussi possible de ne choisir que les paquets requis:

Additional software

There are a number of additional applications that are part of the Xfce project and are of note:

Package Description
app-cdr/xfburn CD burning application.
app-editors/mousepad Lightweight text editor.
x11-themes/xfwm4-themes Several window-manager themes.
xfce-extra/thunar-archive-plugin Plugin for Thunar to work with archives; uses app-arch/file-roller.
xfce-extra/xfce4-battery-plugin Displays battery percentage, time remaining, power source (AC or battery), fan status, warnings, and can even be configured to execute commands at certain power levels, which can be used to put the laptop into hibernate mode when the battery is almost exhausted.
xfce-extra/xfce4-mount-plugin One-click mounting of devices listed in /etc/fstab.
xfce-extra/xfce4-sensors-plugin Monitor hardware sensors, such as CPU temperature, fan RPM, hard drive temp, motherboard voltage, and more.
xfce-extra/xfce4-verve-plugin A small command line embedded into the panel; quicker than opening up another terminal to run a command.


The following applications work well in Xfce to round out a basic desktop environment:

Package Description
x11-misc/alacarte GNOME's menu editor works fine in Xfce.
x11-terms/tilda Lightweight quake-style terminal emulator.


This is a partial selection of packages available in the Gentoo repository, see xfce-extra, or use eix (eix --category xfce-extra), to see packages from the xfce-extra category that may be of interest. See also https://www.xfce.org/projects/ for more information.

Launching Xfce

Xfce can either be run from a terminal after login, launched automatically after login, or be started by a graphical display manager that will greet the user and ask for login details.

Démarrer Xfce sans gestionnaire de connexion (display manager)

startx et startxfce4 sont des alternatives disponibles pour démarrer Xfce sans utiliser un gestionnaire de connexion.

This is a partial selection of packages available in the Gentoo repository, see p.g.o/categories/xfce-extra, or use eix (eix --category xfce-extra), to see packages from the xfce-extra category. See also https://www.xfce.org/projects/ for more information.

startx

Pour utiliser startx, créez un fichier ~/.xinitrc contenant:

FILE ~/.xinitrcDémarrer xfce4 avec startx
exec startxfce4

If experiencing authorization or permissions issues, see the troubleshooting section.

startxfce4

To launch the Xfce4 desktop, simply type startxfce4 at the command-line and press enter:

user $startxfce4

Gestionnaire de connexion (Display manager )

Il est possible d'utiliser un gestionnaire de connexion pour démarrer Xfce. Veuillez vous référer à l'article display manager pour en configurer un.

La plupart des gestionnaire de connexion utilise les fichiers

  • .desktop pour configurer les sessions. Voici un exemple de fichier desktop:
FILE xfce4.desktopXfce4 desktop file for display managers
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=Xfce4
Comment=Utilisez cette session pour éxécuter Xfce 4 comme environnement de bureau
Exec=/usr/bin/startxfce4
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/xfce4_xicon1.png
Type=Application

Le fichier Desktop doit ensuite être placé au bon endroit pour le gestionnaire de connexion.

Configuration

Xfce is a desktop environment and as such can be tuned and tailored to the needs of (almost) every user. In this section, a number of popular (or more challenging) aspects are covered.

Volume keys

Install xfce-extra/xfce4-volumed-pulse to manage the volume keys:

root #emerge --ask xfce-extra/xfce4-volumed-pulse

media-sound/tudor-volumed may be an option for systems not using pulseaudio.

Alternatively, custom keys can be bound to amixer by running xfce4-keyboard-settings:

  • volume up button: amixer set Master 5%+
  • volume down button: amixer set Master 5%-
  • mute button: amixer set Master toggle

Consistent GTK 3 themes

One option is to use the Greybird theme, which has support for GTK 2, GTK 3, xfwm4, emerald, and metacity:

root #emerge --ask x11-themes/greybird

Go to Xfce menu -> Settings -> Appearance. Or run xfce4-appearance-settings. Select "Greybird" from the "Style" list.

Now GTK 2 and GTK 3 applications should have a consistent look.

Other themes

Other themes available in Portage that are compatible with XFCE can be emerged with the following list:

root #emerge --ask x11-themes/clearlooks-phenix x11-themes/gnome-themes-standard x11-themes/gtk-engines-aurora x11-themes/light-themes x11-themes/murrine-themes x11-themes/nimbus x11-themes/redhat-artwork x11-themes/shiki-colors x11-themes/tactile3 x11-themes/zukini

Troubleshooting

Enable vertical window snapping

Most modern desktop environments have vertical window snapping enabled by default. This is also possible in Xfce, but not by default. To enable, navigate to: SettingsWindow managerAdvanced tab.

  • Make sure the "Snap windows to screen border" checkbox has been checked.
  • Make sure the checkboxes under "Wrap workspaces when reaching the screen edge" have been unchecked. These interfere with vertical window snapping.

Once the checkboxes are set it should be now possible to drag a window to the right or left side of the screen, which should cause the window to resize to 50% of the screen width.

Keyboard shortcuts can be set in order to do this via the typical Super+ or Super+ behavior. Navigate to SettingsWindow managerKeyboard tab.

Set the "Tile window to the left" and "Tile window to the right" actions with the Super+ and Super+ key combinations respectively.

Audio mixer complains about missing pavucontrol binary

Clicking the speaker (audio) icon in the panel and then selecting Audio mixer... results in a message saying "pavucontrol binary not found".

The solution is to install media-sound/pavucontrol:

root #emerge --ask media-sound/pavucontrol

Xfce4-screensaver unable to unlock

Xfce-screensaver uses gnome-keyring by default to authenticate. By applying the installation method above, gnome-keyring will not be pulled and pam will be unable to service the default configuration installed in /etc/pam.d/xfce4-screensaver. Either pull gnome-keyring, otherwise the file should be modified to allow system-auth to be used on passwords:

FILE /etc/pam.d/xfce4-screensaver
auth include system-auth
password include system-auth

Authorization or permissions issues

When experiencing authorization or permissions issues within xfce4 in an OpenRC profile (symptoms include being unable to open power manager and unable to suspend/hibernate) make sure that sys-auth/elogind is installed and properly configured, and that the elogind USE flag is globally enabled.

If launching with startx, replace the appropriate line in ~/.xinitrc with the following:

FILE ~/.xinitrcStarting xfce4 the right way when invoking startx
exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session xfce4-session

See also

  • Xfce/Guide — fournit une introduction étendue à Xfce, un environnement de bureau rapide, léger et complet.