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This page is a translated version of the page Vim and the translation is 27% complete.
Outdated translations are marked like this.

Vim (Vi improved) es un editor de texto basado en el editor de texto vi. Se puede utilizar desde la línea de órdenes o como una aplicación independiente con una interfaz gráfica de usuario.

Vim should not be confused with Neovim, a similar program which may be used in its place.

See also
The Vi article provides general information on vi-like editors. See the Vim guide for an introductory tutorial on vi-like editor usage. See the text editor article for general information on installing and configuring text editors in Gentoo.

Ajustes USE

USE flags for app-editors/vim Vim, an improved vi-style text editor

X Link console vim against X11 libraries to enable title and clipboard features in xterm
acl Add support for Access Control Lists
crypt Use dev-libs/libsodium for crypto support
cscope Enable cscope interface
debug Enable extra debug codepaths, like asserts and extra output. If you want to get meaningful backtraces see
gpm Add support for sys-libs/gpm (Console-based mouse driver)
lua Enable Lua scripting support
minimal Install a very minimal build (disables, for example, plugins, fonts, most drivers, non-critical features)
nls Add Native Language Support (using gettext - GNU locale utilities)
perl Add optional support/bindings for the Perl language
python Add optional support/bindings for the Python language
racket Enable support for Scheme using dev-scheme/racket
ruby Add support/bindings for the Ruby language
selinux !!internal use only!! Security Enhanced Linux support, this must be set by the selinux profile or breakage will occur
sound Enable sound support
tcl Add support the Tcl language
terminal Enable terminal emulation support
vim-pager Install vimpager and vimmanpager links


Si no se necesita soporte del sistema X Window, simplemente se puede instalar app-editors/vim:

root #emerge --ask app-editors/vim

Software adicional


Para instalar Vim con la interfaz basada en ncurses (/usr/bin/vim) y la interfaz gráfica (para el sistema X Window /usr/bin/gvim), instalar el paquete app-editors/gvim:

root #emerge --ask app-editors/gvim


Vim has support for packages, which provide a native mechanism to extend functionality. Read the built-in packages documentation for more information: :help packages


La categoría app-vim ofrece una gran cantidad de definiciones adicionales de sintaxis, plugins y otros elementos relacionados con Vim.

Utilice emerge o eix para obtener una vista general de los paquetes disponibles en la categoría app-vim:

user $emerge --search "%@^app-vim"
user $eix -cC app-vim

Not all Vim plugins will be available in the Gentoo repository. Vim now includes native packages, as a way to install plugins, and there are also several plugin managers for Vim.



Vim se puede configurar para cada usuario o para todo el sistema mediante un fichero de configuración:

  • /etc/vim/vimrc - El fichero de configuración para todo el sistema (global).
  • ~/.vimrc - El fichero de configuración específico para cada usuario (local). La virgulilla (~) indica que se encuentra en el directorio de inicio del usuario.

Esquema de colores

El paquete Vim contiene cerca de una docena de colores. Se pueden listar tecleando colorscheme en el modo de última línea y tecleando bien Ctrl+d, bien Tabdo veces:

blue       darkblue   default    delek      desert     elflord    evening    industry   koehler    morning    murphy     pablo      peachpuff  ron        shine      slate      torte      zellner

Se pueden cambiar en Vim usando la orden colorscheme (utilice colo de forma alternativa) mientras se está en el modo de última línea:

:colorscheme peachpuff

Los esquemas de color se pueden aplicar de forma permanente en el fichero .vimrc:

ARCHIVO ~/.vimrc
colorscheme peachpuff
syntax on

La primera línea define el esquema de color mientras que la última activa el esquema.

Selecting vi editor and system default editor

If Vim - and only Vim - is installed, the vi command should launch Vim. If other vi-like editors are installed, eselect may be used to choose which editor the vi command launches.

The text editor article may also be of interest for setting a system default editor, if Vim is to be set as the default.

Gentoo syntax

To enable support for the Gentoo syntax plugin (app-vim/gentoo-syntax) within vim, add the following lines to the user's ~/.vimrc file:

ARCHIVO ~/.vimrc
filetype plugin on
filetype indent on


By default, Vim and Neovim do not hard-wrap lines[1], i.e., typing on a line longer than a certain length does not create a new line. However, Gentoo installs config files for Vim[2] and Neovim[3] that cause lines longer than 78 characters in .txt files to be hard-wrapped. To override this behavior, the following should be specified in the user's ~/.vimrc file:

ARCHIVO ~/.vimrc
let g:leave_my_textwidth_alone=1

bug #559800 contains some discussion around this issue.



From the command line:

user $vim --help
vim --help
VIM - Vi IMproved 8.2 (2019 Dec 12, compiled Nov 26 2021 11:56:27)
Usage: vim [arguments] [file ..]       edit specified file(s)
   or: vim [arguments] -               read text from stdin
   or: vim [arguments] -t tag          edit file where tag is defined
   or: vim [arguments] -q [errorfile]  edit file with first error
   --			Only file names after this
   -v			Vi mode (like "vi")
   -e			Ex mode (like "ex")
   -E			Improved Ex mode
   -s			Silent (batch) mode (only for "ex")
   -d			Diff mode (like "vimdiff")
   -y			Easy mode (like "evim", modeless)
   -R			Readonly mode (like "view")
   -Z			Restricted mode (like "rvim")
   -m			Modifications (writing files) not allowed
   -M			Modifications in text not allowed
   -b			Binary mode
   -l			Lisp mode
   -C			Compatible with Vi: 'compatible'
   -N			Not fully Vi compatible: 'nocompatible'
   -V[N][fname]		Be verbose [level N] [log messages to fname]
   -D			Debugging mode
   -n			No swap file, use memory only
   -r			List swap files and exit
   -r (with file name)	Recover crashed session
   -L			Same as -r
   -A			Start in Arabic mode
   -H			Start in Hebrew mode
   -T <terminal>	Set terminal type to <terminal>
   --not-a-term		Skip warning for input/output not being a terminal
   --ttyfail		Exit if input or output is not a terminal
   -u <vimrc>		Use <vimrc> instead of any .vimrc
   --noplugin		Don't load plugin scripts
   -p[N]		Open N tab pages (default: one for each file)
   -o[N]		Open N windows (default: one for each file)
   -O[N]		Like -o but split vertically
   +			Start at end of file
   +<lnum>		Start at line <lnum>
   --cmd <command>	Execute <command> before loading any vimrc file
   -c <command>		Execute <command> after loading the first file
   -S <session>		Source file <session> after loading the first file
   -s <scriptin>	Read Normal mode commands from file <scriptin>
   -w <scriptout>	Append all typed commands to file <scriptout>
   -W <scriptout>	Write all typed commands to file <scriptout>
   -x			Edit encrypted files
   --startuptime <file>	Write startup timing messages to <file>
   -i <viminfo>		Use <viminfo> instead of .viminfo
   --clean		'nocompatible', Vim defaults, no plugins, no viminfo
   -h  or  --help	Print Help (this message) and exit
   --version		Print version information and exit

The vi command may also be used to launch Vim, if so configured.

Specify a name, to open an existing file, or to create a new one:

user $vim <filename>


Vim tiene un tutorial incorporado que requiere alrededor de treinta minutos de lectura. Comience utilizando la orden vimtutor:

user $vimtutor

Consejos y trucos

Usar Vim como ex o ed desde la línea de órdenes

Es posible utilizar Vim para ficheros de una línea, órdenes que se pueden utilizar en la línea de órdenes para hacer cambios sin intervención del usuario.

Por ejemplo, la siguiente orden añade # al principio de cada línea en el fichero fichero.txt:

user $vim -c ":%s/^/#/g" -c ":x" fichero.txt

Lo que ocurre es que Vim interpreta las órdenes que se han pasado (mediante la opción the -c). La primera orden es la orden de sustitución de Vim (que es muy similar a la de sed), la segunda es la instrucción de Vim para guardar y salir del editor.

Cambiar la codificación del fichero

Para cambiar la codificación del fichero a UTF-8, utilice la siguiente orden (en el modo de última línea):

:e ++enc=utf8

Tal y como se muestra en el truco anterior, es posible hacer esto también desde la línea de órdenes:

user $vim -c ":wq! ++enc=utf8" fichero.txt


I'm trapped in vim!

For someone entering vim without first having learned how to use it, it may not be obvious how to quit.

Press esc several times, then :, q, enter. To quit without saving, press esc several times, then :, q, !, enter.

If several files are open, try pressing esc several times, then :, q, a, enter. To quit without saving, press esc several times, then :, q, a, !, enter.

If this doesn't help, and desperate measures are needed, something like killall vim may be a last ditch solution (from another terminal). Beware that this will terminate all the vim sessions for a user, without saving. If run as root, such a command will terminate all vim sessions for all users on the system.

Pastes are being tabbed

Say the following text is trying to be pasted into a Vim buffer:

CÓDIGO Sample tabbed data
    - data
    - structured
    - this
    - shape
    - VIM
    - may 
not: like

Vim may interpret this with autotabbing, breaking the paste:

CÓDIGO Vim misinterpretation
      - data
          - structured
	       - this
		   - shape
		         - VIM
			     - may 
			     not: like

To correct this, run the following command: :set paste to enable Vim's paste mode, once the paste is completed, :set nopaste can be used to go back to the previous settings.


user $vim foobar
E1187: Failed to source defaults.vim
Press ENTER or type command to continue

Seems solved by destabilize 8.2.4328.

Ver también

  • Guía de Vim. Explica como utilizar Vim más detalladamente.

Recursos externos