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GNOME is a popular desktop environment. This guide tries to describe all aspects of GNOME, including installation, configuration, usage, and more!

그놈이 무엇인가요?


The GNOME project is a free software project dedicated to the development of GNOME, a Unix/Linux desktop suite and development platform. The GNOME Foundation coordinates the development and other aspects of the GNOME Project.


그놈은 데스크톱 환경이자 개발 플랫폼입니다. 이 자유 소프트웨어는 여러 산업 리더들이 선택한 데스크톱 구성요소입니다. 직장인, 가정, 개발자들에게 관심을 가지고 있습니다.


Like with any big free software project, GNOME has an extensive user and development base. GNOME Planet is a popular blog aggregator for GNOME hackers and contributors whereas is for the GNOME developers. GNOME Library contains a huge list of GNOME resources for end users. The WOGUE is also a popular aggregator for GNOME-related news.


Before the GNOME install process, first read and follow the instructions in the Xorg guide to setup a X environment. X is the standard base for all desktop environments in Linux. Also, be sure to read and comply with all the settings from the systemd article.

If the reader does not want to use GNOME with systemd, please read the GNOME without systemd article.


Before installing GNOME, editing the system's USE variables is a good idea. Make sure that X, gtk, and gnome are in the USE variable located in /etc/portage/make.conf. It is recommended to enable support for D-Bus system-wide. Systemd includes this system message bus. Add systemd to the USE variable as well (D-Bus is a system message bus that GNOME uses extensively). If no KDE support is required, remove qt4, qt5 and kde from USE. USE flags can be removed by adding a minus sign (-) in front of them. See the example below for the minus sign used properly.

파일 /etc/portage/make.confExample global USE flags for a GNOME desktop environment
USE="-qt4 -qt5 -kde X gtk gnome systemd"

기본 그놈 시작 화면 대신에 젠투 브랜드 시작 화면을 사용한다면 branding USE 플래그를 추가할 수 있습니다:

root #echo "gnome-base/gnome-session branding" >> /etc/portage/package.use
When using the desktop/gnome/systemd profile, these USE flags will be set automatically. It is possible to check the system profile by running eselect profile list. Modifications can be made by running eselect profile set <profile-name> as root. Be sure to replace "<profile-name>" with the number or name of the desired profile.

Once finished, begin the GNOME installation by emerging GNOME:

root #emerge --ask gnome-base/gnome

For a minimal GNOME installation install the gnome-base/gnome-light package. This option provides a lightweight GNOME installation without pulling in the full GNOME desktop environment. Most people may need to install additional packages afterwards.

root #emerge --ask gnome-base/gnome-light

This will take a while, so start reading some books. Done? Great, now update environment variables:

root #env-update && source /etc/profile

다음 남은 서비스와 사용자 그룹을 정리하겠습니다.

plugdev 그룹이 있는지 확인하십시오. 만약 있다면, 각 그놈 사용자가 그룹의 구성원이 될 수 있게 하는데 도움이 될 것입니다만, 이 단계는 선택 여부에 따라 달려있습니다(더이상 이 그룹은 일반적인 요소가 아닙니다).

root #getent group plugdev

다음 명령의 <username>을 그놈 사용자의 사용자 이름으로 바꾸십시오:

root #gpasswd -a yourUserName plugdev

First impressions

It is time to take a look at what was just built. Either configure the session manager to run GNOME when the startx command is invoked (see using startx in the Xorg guide for more information), or enable the GDM service, for a more convenient way to start Gnome.

Enabling GDM


To start GDM upon boot:

root #systemctl enable gdm.service

To start GDM immediately, run:

root #systemctl start gdm.service
The following command both enables and starts GDM immediately:
root #systemctl enable --now gdm.service

Another suggestion is to activate Network Manager, in case no other network managing service is activated.

Using startx

Exit the root shell and log in as a regular user. The next step is to configure the session manager to run GNOME when the the startx command is invoked (see using startx in the Xorg guide for more information).

user $echo "exec gnome-session" > ~/.xinitrc

gnome-base/gnome-session-2.26.2로 시작할 때, 데스크톱 시작시 ~/.xinitrc 방식을 사용할 경우 그놈 메뉴를 가져오도록 XDG_MENU_PREFIX 변수를 추가해야 합니다. (만약 ~/.xinitrc를 사용하지 않는다면 이 변수가 자동으로 처리됩니다. 더 이상의 추가 설정은 필요하지 않습니다.)

user $sed -i '1i\export XDG_MENU_PREFIX=gnome-' ~/.xinitrc

이제 startx를 실행하여 그래픽 환경을 시작하십시오:

user $startx

모든 부분이 잘 돌아간다면 GNOME에서는 반가운 인사말을 표시합니다. 그놈 설정 성공을 축하합니다!

Customizing Gnome

For extra configuration options in GNOME 3 install the gnome-extra/gnome-tweak-tool package. The tweak tool allows customization at a deeper level than the standard Settings frame.

Widgets in GNOME 3

By default in Gentoo Gnome 3 does not support widgets. For users who wish to obtain widget functionality a separate package is available:

root #emerge --ask gnome-extra/gnome-shell-extensions

After the Shell Extensions are installed, eselect can be used to control defaults on a global level:

root #eselect gnome-shell-extensions list
Available extensions (* means enabled for all users by default):

Enable click-to-install Shell Extensions through the web browser

For web browsers such as Google Chrome, Chromium, and Vivaldi be sure to get the required browser add-on through the Chrome store:

Firefox users can get it here:

Opera users will have to snag it here:

After the add-on has been installed for the browser of choice, a backend must also be emerged:

root #emerge --ask gnome-extra/chrome-gnome-shell

It should now be possible to install, manage, and uninstall shell extensions at

If things are not working as expected check the upstream installation instructions for news.

Non-Root User Authentication for Gnome Dialogs

Certain Gnome dialogs such as Printers, adding wireless networks, and Users require administrator authentication. This is handled through sys-auth/polkit and operates independently from app-admin/sudo. By default in Gentoo, the root account is the only administrator, and so even if a user account can run root commands through sudo, authentication in these Gnome dialogs will fail.

If you would like all users of the group wheel to be administrators, create a copy of /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/50-default.rules starting with a number lower than 50, and edit the line return ["unix-user:0"] to the following:

파일 /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/49-wheel.rulesAdministrator wheel group
polkit.addAdminRule(function(action, subject) {
    return ["unix-group:wheel"];

The Polkit wiki page provides more details on rules configuration.

Gnome Hotspot

In order for gnome-hotspot to work, your wireless card must support AP (access point) infrastructure mode. The following package use flags are also needed:

파일 /etc/portage/package.useConnection Sharing and Access Point Support
net-misc/networkmanager connection-sharing
net-wireless/wpa_supplicant ap

In addition, the following kernel options are needed:

커널 NAT options (locations for kernel 4.14)
Networking support (NET [=y])
    Networking options --->
        Network packet filtering framework (Netfilter) (NETFILTER [=y]) --->
            IP: Netfilter Configuration --->
                <*/M> IPv4 NAT (CONFIG_NF_NAT_IPv4)
                <*/M> IPv4 masquerade support
                <*/M> IP tables support (required for filtering/masq/NAT) (IP_NF_IPTABLES [=y])
                <*/M> iptables NAT support



그놈 설치를 확실하게 제거하는 방법은 gnome-base/gnome 꾸러미를 분명하게 설치 제거하고 꾸러미 의존 요소를 제거하는 방식입니다.

제대로 삭제하려면 포티지 저장소를 동기화했는지 확인하십시오:

root #emerge --sync

world를 업데이트하여 시스템을 완전히 최신상태로 만드십시오:

root #emerge --ask --update --newuse --deep --with-bdeps=y @world

그놈 베이스 꾸러미를 언머지하십시오:

root #emerge --ask --depclean gnome-base/gnome

마지막으로 의존 요소를 제거하십시오:

root #emerge --ask --depclean

GNOME should now be removed.


Login failure with message "Oh no something has gone wrong"

One source of this error can be the permissions for the video device. When logging in fails and a message appears that says "Oh no, something has gone wrong", then try to become a member of the video group. Add the user to the video group with gpasswd like so:

root #gpasswd -a <user> video

외부 자료

This page is based on a document formerly found on our main website
The following people contributed to the original document: Lars Strojny, Joshua Saddler (nightmorph)
They are listed here because wiki history does not allow for any external attribution. If you edit the wiki article, please do not add yourself here; your contributions are recorded on each article's associated history page.