From Gentoo Wiki
Jump to:navigation Jump to:search
This page is a translated version of the page Equery and the translation is 19% complete.
Outdated translations are marked like this.

equery ist ein Hilfsprogramm, das gängige Portage-Operationen vereinfacht. Unter anderen kann es Paketabhängigkeiten, Metadaten und installierte Dateien anzeigen.

equery is part of gentoolkit.



Equery ist Teil eines Toolsets, das mit den Paket app-portage/gentoolkit installiert wird

root #emerge --ask app-portage/gentoolkit

Weitere Informationen zur Installation von equery oder anderen Tools befinden sich im Gentoolkit Artikel.



equery is a tool that displays useful information about the installed packages on the system. equery is based on a system of modules. Every module has a shorthand name. For example, running equery l gcc is the same as running equery list gcc. Invoking the --help option (equery --help) will output global options and list all available modules and their shorthand names. Adding a module name to the end (equery --help module) will display the help screen for that specific module. Lastly, executing man equery will also provide a detailed explanation of all available modules and options along with some useful examples.

Nachfolgend sind Funktionen gelistet, die in den meisten Modulen funktionieren.

user $equery --quiet list gcc
user $equery --quiet list sys-devel/gcc
user $equery --quiet list '>=sys-devel/gcc-4'

Genauso wie emerge versteht auch equery keine nur teilweise angegebenen Paketnamen:

user $equery check zilla
!!! No package found matching zilla

Anders als emerge akzeptiert equery shell-ähnliche Platzhalter in der Kategorie und/oder dem Paketnamen:

user $equery check '*zilla*'
 * Checking www-client/mozilla-firefox-3.0.14 ...
    90 out of 90 files passed
user $equery check 'www-c*/*'
 * Checking www-client/links-2.2 ...
   30 out of 30 files passed
 * Checking www-client/mozilla-firefox-3.0.14 ...
   90 out of 90 files passed

Die meisten Equery-Module benötigen mehrere Eingaben:

user $equery hasuse sse sse2
 * Searching for USE flag sse ...
[IP-] [  ] media-libs/flac-1.2.1-r3 (0)
[IP-] [  ] media-libs/speex-1.2_beta3_p2 (0)
 * Searching for USE flag sse2 ...
[IP-] [  ] dev-libs/openssl-0.9.8k (0)
[IP-] [  ] x11-libs/pixman-0.16.0 (0)

Einige Module erlauben auch vollständige reguläre Ausdrücke:

user $equery -q list --portage-tree --full-regex '[kr]?flickr.*'
Globbing support replaced a number of older options in equery. For example, to act on all packages in a certain set, use a '*' (asterisk). To act on all packages in a category, use 'category-name/*'.
Do not forget to quote input when using special shell characters like asterisks or greater than/less than signs.

The next few sections in this document give a quick introduction to the different equery modules.


To see a list of all equery's capabilities, simply run it without arguments:

user $equery
Gentoo package query tool
Usage: equery [global-options] module-name [module-options]
modules (short name)
 (b)elongs               list what package FILES belong to
 chec(k)                 verify checksums and timestamps for PKG
 (d)epends               list all packages directly depending on ATOM
 dep(g)raph              display a tree of all dependencies for PKG
 (f)iles                 list all files installed by PKG
 h(a)s                   list all packages for matching ENVIRONMENT data stored in /var/db/pkg
 (h)asuse                list all packages that have USE flag
 ke(y)words              display keywords for specified PKG
 (l)ist                  list package matching PKG
 (m)eta                  display metadata about PKG
 (s)ize                  display total size of all files owned by PKG
 (u)ses                  display USE flags for PKG
 (w)hich                 print full path to ebuild for PKG
As of 2023-01-27, the keywords module is not documented in the equery(1) man page - cf. bug #565408. However, a description is provided below. The keywords module is documented in its alias command eshowkw(1) man page.


A common approach to working with equery is to create aliases. When using bash these can usually be placed in the ~/.bashrc file:

DATEI ~/.bashrc
alias eqf='equery f'
alias equ='equery u'
alias eqh='equery h'
alias eqa='equery a'
alias eqb='equery b'
alias eql='equery l'
alias eqd='equery d'
alias eqg='equery g'
alias eqk='equery k'
alias eqm='equery m'
alias eqy='equery y'
alias eqs='equery s'
alias eqw='equery w'

Finding the package that a file came from with belongs (b)

user $equery belongs -e /usr/bin/glxgears
 * Searching for /usr/bin/glxgears ...
 x11-apps/mesa-progs-7.5.1 (/usr/bin/glxgears)

belongs can search for files matching a regular expression with the -f option. The -e option stops searching after it finds a match. Since no file on your system should be owned by two packages, this is a safe optimization.

A short version of belongs (b) can also be used. For example, to list what package equery belongs to:

user $equery b equery
 * Searching for equery ... 
app-portage/gentoolkit- (/usr/lib/python-exec/python2.7/equery)
app-portage/gentoolkit- (/usr/lib64/python3.3/site-packages/gentoolkit/test/equery)
app-portage/gentoolkit- (/usr/bin/equery -> ../lib/python-exec/python-exec2)
app-portage/gentoolkit- (/usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/gentoolkit/equery)
app-portage/gentoolkit- (/usr/lib/python-exec/python3.3/equery)
app-portage/gentoolkit- (/usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/gentoolkit/test/equery)
app-portage/gentoolkit- (/usr/lib64/python3.3/site-packages/gentoolkit/equery)

Überprüfung der Paketintegrität mit check (k)

Manchmal ist es nützlich, die Integrität eines Pakets zu überprüfen. equery kann MD5-Summen sowie Zeitstempel überprüfen, um anzuzeigen, wenn ein Paket beschädigt, ersetzt oder entfernt sein könnte.

user $equery check gentoolkit
 * Checking app-portage/gentoolkit-0.3.0_rc7 ...
   71 out of 71 files passed

Alle Pakete auflisten die von einem bestimmten Paket abhängen -- depends (d)

Manchmal stellt sich die Frage, warum ein bestimmtes Paket auf einem System installiert wurde? equery kann mit depends auflisten, von welchen Paketen es abhängt. Indirekte Abhängigkeiten können mit der Option -D einbezogen werden.

user $equery depends pygtk
 * Searching for pygtk ...
app-admin/pessulus-2.24.0 (>=dev-python/pygtk-2.6.0)
app-editors/gedit-2.24.3 (python ? >=dev-python/pygtk-2.12)
dev-libs/libgweather-2.24.3 (python ? >=dev-python/pygtk-2)
dev-python/gnome-python-base-2.22.3 (>=dev-python/pygtk-2.10.3)
dev-python/gnome-python-desktop-base-2.24.1 (>=dev-python/pygtk-2.10.3)

Ein zweites Beispiel listet alle Pakete auf, die direkt von udev abhängen:

user $equery d udev
sys-auth/consolekit-0.4.5_p20120320 (acl ? >=sys-fs/udev-146-r1)
sys-fs/cryptsetup-1.4.1 (>=sys-fs/udev-124)
sys-fs/lvm2-2.02.88 (>=sys-fs/udev-151-r4)
virtual/dev-manager-0 (sys-fs/udev)
x11-libs/cairo-1.10.2-r2 (drm ? >=sys-fs/udev-136)
This output will include optional dependencies governed by USE flags, i.e. acl USE in (acl ? >=sys-fs/udev-146-r1) above, even if that USE flag is not active. A package would only be a dependency if that USE flag is active.

Getting dependency graphs with depgraph (g)

depgraph is the opposite of depends. It will find all ebuilds that a given package depends on (not the ebuilds that depend on that package). When it finds a dependency, it will recursively search that package's dependencies. Control how deep the tree gets with the --depth option.

user $equery depgraph mozilla-firefox
 * Searching for mozilla-firefox ...
 * dependency graph for www-client/mozilla-firefox-
`-- www-client/mozilla-firefox-
 `-- virtual/jre-1.6.0 (virtual/jre) [java]
  `-- virtual/jdk-1.6.0 (virtual/jdk-1.6.0*)
  `-- dev-java/icedtea6-bin (unable to resolve: package masked or removed)
   `-- dev-java/sun-jdk-
    `-- dev-java/java-sdk-docs- [doc]
     `-- app-arch/unzip-6.0-r1
      `-- app-arch/bzip2-1.0.5-r1 [bzip2]
    `-- sys-libs/glibc-2.9_p20081201-r2
     `-- sys-devel/gettext-0.17 [nls]
      `-- virtual/libiconv-0 (virtual/libiconv)

Notice how jre is a direct dependency and jdk is an indirect dependency if the java USE is set?

Listing files installed by a package with files (f)

equery can list all the files installed by an ebuild with the files module. Try --tree to get an easy to read directory layout. Use --filter to only find a certain type of file. For example, to find where executables were installed use --filter=cmd, or to quickly find the configuration file location try --filter=conf.

user $equery files --tree gentoolkit
 * Searching for gentoolkit ...
 * Contents of app-portage/gentoolkit-0.3.0_rc7:
   > /eclean
      + distfiles.exclude
      + packages.exclude
   > /env.d
      + 99gentoolkit-env
   > /revdep-rebuild
      + 99revdep-rebuild
   > /bin
      + eclean
      + eclean-dist -> eclean
      + eclean-pkg -> eclean
      + epkginfo
      + equery
      + eread
      + euse
      + glsa-check
      + revdep-rebuild
   > /lib
      > /python2.6
         > /site-packages
            > /gentoolkit
            + gentoolkit-0.3.0_rc7-py2.6.egg-info
               + __init__.py
               > /equery
                  + __init__.py
                  + belongs.py
                  + changes.py
                  + check.py
                  + depends.py
                  + depgraph.py
                  + files.py

Another example, to list all files installed by media-sound/ncmpcpp:

user $equery f ncmpcpp
 * Searching for ncmpcpp ...
 * Contents of media-sound/ncmpcpp-0.5.10:

Descriptions of other modules and additional command line flags can be found in the equery man page (man equery).

Looking for packages that have a specific USE flag with hasuse (h)

hasuse can be used to find packages with a given USE flag. hasuse will not indicate if the flag has been enabled or not; it simply outputs a list of ebuilds that have the queried flag as an option. See the EXAMPLES section of hasuse in the equery man page for more tip on getting this kind of information.

user $equery hasuse qt3 qt4
 * Searching for USE flag qt3 ...
[IP-] [  ] app-crypt/pinentry-0.7.5 (0)
[IP-] [  ] net-dns/avahi-0.6.24-r2 (0)
[IP-] [  ] net-wireless/wpa_supplicant-0.6.9 (0)
 * Searching for USE flag qt4 ...
[IP-] [  ] net-dns/avahi-0.6.24-r2 (0)
[IP-] [  ] net-wireless/wpa_supplicant-0.6.9 (0)

Display keywords for specified package (y)

keywords can be used to display the keyword status of a package on various architectures.

user $equery keywords coreutils
Keywords for sys-apps/coreutils:
          |                               |   u   |  
          | a   a     p s     l r   a     |   n   |  
          | m   r h   p p   i o i s l m m | e u s | r
          | d a m p p c a x a o s 3 p 6 i | a s l | e
          | 6 r 6 p p 6 r 8 6 n c 9 h 8 p | p e o | p
          | 4 m 4 a c 4 c 6 4 g v 0 a k s | i d t | o
  8.32-r1 | + + + + + + + + ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 7 # 0 | gentoo
   9.1-r1 | + + + + + + + + ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 7 #   | gentoo
[I]9.1-r2 | + + + + + + + + ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 7 o   | gentoo

+ indicates the package version is available on stable; ~ indicates its availability on testing; and o indicates the package version is unavailable. [I] indicates the package version currently installed; [M] indicates the package is masked.

Listing packages with list (l)

list is a simple, yet powerful module to list packages that are either installed, present in the Gentoo ebuild repository or present in another ebuild repository configured with Portage.

Listing all installed packages

The standard query will search installed packages for the given package name. Passing in '*' displays all packages in the set:

user $equery list '*'
 * Searching for * ...
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/eselect-1.2.3 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/eselect-ctags-1.10 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/eselect-esd-20060719 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/eselect-fontconfig-1.0 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/eselect-opengl-1.0.8-r1 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/eselect-python-20090824 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/eselect-ruby-20081227 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/eselect-vi-1.1.5 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/perl-cleaner-1.05 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/pessulus-2.24.0 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/python-updater-0.7 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-admin/sudo-1.7.2_p1 (0)

In the leftmost field it is possible to see all the above packages are I(nstalled) and from the P(ortage) tree. They are not masked (the second field is blank), and they are all installed in the default slot (0).

Listing packages available in ebuild repositories

Use local options to look for packages in the Portage tree and overlays: the --portage-tree (-p) option will include packages available from the Gentoo ebuild repository in the search, the --overlay-tree (-o) option will include packages available in overlays (ebuild repositories) that are configured with Portage in the search:

user $equery list -po vim
 * Searching for vim ...
[-P-] [  ] app-editors/vim-7.0.235 (0)
[-P-] [ ~] app-editors/vim-7.0.243 (0)
[-P-] [  ] app-editors/vim-7.1.123 (0)
[-P-] [ ~] app-editors/vim-7.1.330 (0)
[-P-] [  ] app-editors/vim-7.2 (0)
[-P-] [ ~] app-editors/vim-7.2.108 (0)
[IP-] [  ] app-editors/vim-7.2.182 (0)
[-P-] [ ~] app-editors/vim-7.2.238 (0)
[-P-] [ ~] app-editors/vim-7.2.264 (0)

It is possible to see that version 7.2.182 is installed and that there are no versions available from an overlay. Users can see which versions are keyword masked by the ~ in the second field.

To only list available packages, excluding packages that are already installed, add the --exclude-installed (-I) option.

Viewing package metadata with meta (m)

Each package in the Portage tree provides at least some metadata about its maintainer, etc. The amount of useful information depends on how much package maintainers decide to provide. With no options, meta returns some basic useful information.

user $equery meta gnucash
 * app-office/gnucash [gentoo]
 Maintainer:  tove@gentoo.org (Torsten Veller)
 Upstream:    None specified
 Location:    /var/db/repos/gentoo/app-office/gnucash
 Keywords:    2.2.9-r1:0: alpha amd64 ppc sparc x86
 Keywords:    2.2.9-r2:0:
 Keywords:    2.3.8:0:
 Keywords:    2.3.10:0: ~alpha ~amd64 ~ppc ~sparc ~x86

Some maintainers provide extra information about a package, which can be very useful:

user $equery meta --description emacs
 * app-editors/emacs
  GNU Emacs is an extensible, customizable text editor - and more. At its core
  is an interpreter for Emacs Lisp, a dialect of the Lisp programming language
  with extensions to support text editing. The features of GNU Emacs include:
   * Content-sensitive editing modes, including syntax coloring, for a wide
     variety of file types including plain text, source code, and HTML.
   * Complete built-in documentation, including a tutorial for new users.
   * Support for many languages and their scripts, including all the European
     "Latin" scripts, Russian, Greek, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Thai,
     Vietnamese, Lao, Ethiopian, and some Indian scripts.
   * Highly customizable, using Emacs Lisp code or a graphical customization
   * A large number of extensions that add other functionality, including a
     project planner, mail and news reader, debugger interface, calendar, and
     more. Many of these extensions are distributed with GNU Emacs; others are
     available separately.

Finding package sizes with size (s)

Ever been curious to find out how much space a specific package is occupying? Since a package could have its files over a number of directories, the usual du -hc command might not give the correct figure. Don't worry, equery to the rescue!

user $equery size openoffice-bin
 * app-office/openoffice-bin-3.1.1
         Total files : 4624
         Total size  : 361.38 MiB

Using size prints the total space used in human-readable units and lists the total number of files the package has. To get the total size in bytes use --bytes.

Listing per-package USE flags with uses (u)

equery's uses module can provide information about what USE flags are available for a specific package and which of those flags is currently enabled.

user $equery uses gst-plugins-meta
 * Searching for gst-plugins-meta ...
[ Legend : U - flag is set in make.conf       ]
[        : I - package is installed with flag ]
[ Colors : set, unset                         ]
 * Found these USE flags for media-plugins/gst-plugins-meta-0.10-r2:
 U I
 + + X      : Adds support for X11
 - - a52    : Enables support for decoding ATSC A/52 streams used in DVD
 + + alsa   : Adds support for media-libs/alsa-lib (Advanced Linux Sound
 - - dvb    : Adds support for DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting)
 + + dvd    : Adds support for DVDs
 + + esd    : Adds support for media-sound/esound (Enlightened Sound Daemon)
 + + ffmpeg : Enable ffmpeg-based audio/video codec support
 + + flac   : Adds support for FLAC: Free Lossless Audio Codec
 - - mad    : Adds support for mad (high-quality mp3 decoder library and cli
 + + mpeg   : Adds libmpeg3 support to various packages
 - - mythtv : Support for retrieval from media-tv/mythtv backend
 + + ogg    : Adds support for the Ogg container format (commonly used by
              Vorbis, Theora and flac)
 - - oss    : Adds support for OSS (Open Sound System)
 + + theora : Adds support for the Theora Video Compression Codec
 + + vorbis : Adds support for the OggVorbis audio codec
 - - xv     : Adds in optional support for the Xvideo extension (an X API for
              video playback)

Here a number of USE flags are enabled in gstreamer's plugin meta-package, but it can be seen that there are other USE flags available. For more information on USE flags, please refer to the USE Flags chapter of the Gentoo Handbook.

Finding the ebuild path with which (w)

which is a simple script to help users quickly find the file path to an ebuild. If an unversioned package name is passed using which it will return the path to the newest installable ebuild version. In other words, it would return the ebuild Portage would use if emerge example/package was typed. which also accepts a versioned package to get the path to that ebuild.

user $equery which gnome

Lastly, if none of the above features of equery have provided an answer, try using which to manually search an ebuild with programs like cat, less or grep:

user $grep HOMEPAGE $(equery which gentoolkit)
Be aware that equery currently changes the format of the output if it is sent through a pipe. The piped format is intended to be easier to parse by tools, but it can be turned off by adding the --no-pipe option. When writing scripts that employ equery be aware of this behavior.

Summary table

Parameter "equery -" Description
u show USE-flags of package
d dependencies
g dependency graph
b package origin of specific file
s size
w path

See also

  • q applets - A collection of small and fast Portage helper tools written in C.
  • eix - A set of utilities for searching and diffing the local Portage tree and overlays using a binary cache.
  • Gentoolkit - A suite of tools to ease the administration of a Gentoo system.