mutt ist ein text- und kommandozeilenbasierter Mail User Agent (MUA). mutt ist einer der aktuellen konsolenbasierten Mailclients, der immer noch aktiv entwickelt wird und eine große Anzahl aktiver Unterstützer (und Nutzer) hat. Er ist leistungsstark, hochgradig anpassbar, klein und effizient.
neomutt ist ein Fork von mutt, welcher sehr ähnlich ist und auf den der größte Teil des Artikels ebenfalls zutrifft.
While Mutt was originally designed to read mail from the local mbox mail spool (e.g. /var/spool/mail/), nowadays it comes with full support for Maildir stored folders, remote fetching from POP3 servers and complete management of IMAP accounts. For a full description of what Mutt can do, please read the Mutt manual.
Starting your Mutt adventure simply requires you to emerge it. Unfortunately, Mutt has a lots of options, which enable or disable certain functionalities of Mutt. We now briefly discuss the most important USE flags that you may want to enable based on your intended usage of Mutt. Please note that enabling most of them won't harm your Mutt, but may make it do more than an experienced Mutt user would like.
emerge --ask --verbose mail-client/mutt
USE flags for mail-client/mutt A small but very powerful text-based mail client
||Enable autocrypt.org support|
||Enable sys-libs/db database backend for header caching|
||Enable extra debug codepaths, like asserts and extra output. If you want to get meaningful backtraces see https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Project:Quality_Assurance/Backtraces|
||Add extra documentation (API, Javadoc, etc). It is recommended to enable per package instead of globally|
||Enable sys-libs/gdbm database backend for header caching|
||Prefer net-libs/gnutls as SSL/TLS provider (ineffective with USE=-ssl)|
||Build gpgme backend to support S/MIME, PGP/MIME and traditional/inline PGP|
||Use GNU SASL via virtual/gsasl instead of Cyrus SASL (requires USE=sasl)|
||Enable header cache, one database backend needs to be enabled|
||Enable support for Internationalized Domain Names|
||Add support for IMAP (Internet Mail Application Protocol)|
||Add kerberos support|
||Enable dev-db/lmdb database backend for header caching|
||Add support for mbox (/var/spool/mail) style mail spools|
||Add Native Language Support (using gettextGNU locale utilities)|
||Build classic_pgp backend to support PGP/MIME and traditional/inline PGP|
||Enable support for POP3 mailboxes|
||Defines if a Gentoo Prefix offset installation is used|
||Add support for the qdbm (Quick Database Manager) library|
||Add support for the Simple Authentication and Security Layer|
||!!internal use only!! Security Enhanced Linux support, this must be set by the selinux profile or breakage will occur|
||Add support for the slang text display library (it's like ncurses, but different)|
||Build classic_smime backend to support S/MIME|
||Enable support for direct SMTP delivery|
||Add support for SSL/TLS connections (Secure Socket Layer / Transport Layer Security)|
||Enable dev-db/tokyocabinet database backend for header caching|
||Do not add extra patches which change default behaviour; DO NOT USE THIS ON A GLOBAL SCALE as the severity of the meaning changes drastically|
imap USE-Flag ist möglicherweise die wichtigste Funktion, die man für Mutt aktivieren sollte. Es zu aktivieren ist vorteilhaft. Viele E-Mail-Anbieter, auch kostenlose wie Gmail, verwenden IMAP, da es die bequemste Art ist, E-Mails zu speichern, auf die von mehreren Clients gleichzeitig und/oder von verschiedenen Orten aus zugegriffen wird. Da IMAP alle E-Mails auf dem Server speichert, lädt Mutt nur jene Nachrichten herunter, die man sehen möchte.
Header cache backends
Next to reading messages, it often happens that you will list a mailbox, to see what is in there. For this information, Mutt has to download the message headers. When you switch folders frequently, or your folders contain a large amount of emails, downloading the message headers over and over again will take some time. Since this simply is a waste, Mutt uses a so-called header cache (USE flag
hcache) to keep the most important bits of messages that it needs to greatly speedup opening folders. This header cache is backed by a db-library, of which five flavours exist:
tokyocabinet. If you don't have any preference yourself, pick
lmdb as it is the fastest when used with Mutt. You can only enable at most one db-library USE flag for
hcache backend. If you re-emerge Mutt with a different db-library later, Mutt will rebuild its caches automatically when it opens a folder.
While IMAP is important for reading mail, sending mail requires a mail server. Mutt can deliver mail using a local (send)mail submission, but often that's not a good solution for users that travel around (e.g. laptop users). Mutt comes with SMTP support which is enabled by default with the
smtp USE flag. Mutt's SMTP support allows you to send mail over a mail server of your choice with the option to authenticate an account. This is usually an SMTP server given to you by the email provider.
Both IMAP and SMTP protocols send data over encrypted channels. With the
smtp USE flags enabled, it is wise to enable the
gnutls USE flags. Both add the secure variants (imaps and smtps) to Mutt's list of supported protocols using either OpenSSL's or GNUTLS' implementation respectively. Most readers will not have a strong preference between OpenSSL and GNUTLS, so just go for
ssl, since it is most likely this is already in the system's global list of USE flags. When intending to authenticate when sending e-mail, be sure to also include the
sasl USE flag. The
sasl USE flag is required for authentication when sending email.
Even with secure IMAPS and SMTPS protocols, it is best practice to sign and/or encrypt email messages. Mutt supports traditional OpenPGP and S/MIME. Both of these are supported using the gpgme wrapper. The easiest way to setup support for signed and encrypted messages is using the
gpgme USE flag. Documentation and experiences in this area can be confusing to say the least. When enabling
gpgme USE flag, ensure the backend has been properly setup in the configuration (see below).
After you emerge Mutt with some choice USE flags, the only necessary next step is to create a .muttrc file. muttrc's are to be found in many places on the web and in Mutt's documentation. In /usr/share/doc/mutt-<version>/samples some muttrc samples from the official distribution can be found. A very minimal .muttrc for an IMAP based account with SMTP mail delivery is shown below. It also enables signing emails via gpg using the gpgme backend.
# character set on sent messages set send_charset="utf-8" # if there is no character set given on incoming messages, it is probably windows set assumed_charset="iso-8859-1" # make sure Vim knows Mutt is a mail client and that a UTF-8 encoded message will be composed set editor="vim -c 'set syntax=mail ft=mail enc=utf-8'" # just scroll one line instead of full page set menu_scroll=yes # we want to see some MIME types inline, see below this code listing for explanation auto_view application/msword auto_view application/pdf # make default search pattern to search in To, Cc and Subject set simple_search="~f %s | ~C %s | ~s %s" # threading preferences, sort by threads set sort=threads set strict_threads=yes # show spam score (from SpamAssassin only) when reading a message spam "X-Spam-Score: ([0-9\\.]+).*" "SA: %1" set pager_format = " %C - %[%H:%M] %.20v, %s%* %?H? [%H] ?" # do not show all headers, just a few ignore * unignore From To Cc Bcc Date Subject # and in this order unhdr_order * hdr_order From: To: Cc: Bcc: Date: Subject: # brighten up stuff with colors, for more coloring examples see: # http://aperiodic.net/phil/configs/mutt/colors color normal white black color hdrdefault green default color quoted green default color quoted1 yellow default color quoted2 red default color signature cyan default color indicator brightyellow red color error brightred default color status brightwhite blue color tree brightmagenta black color tilde blue default color attachment brightyellow default color markers brightred default color message white black color search brightwhite magenta color bold brightyellow default # if you don't like the black progress bar at the bottom of the screen, # comment out the following line color progress white black # personality settings set realname = "Larry the cow" set from = "email@example.com" alternates "firstname.lastname@example.orgemail@example.com" # this file must exist, and contains your signature, comment it out if # you don't want a signature to be used set signature = ~/.signature # aliases (sort of address book) source ~/.aliases # IMAP connection settings set mail_check=60 set imap_keepalive=300 # IMAP account settings set folder=imaps://firstname.lastname@example.org/ set spoolfile=imaps://email@example.com/ set record=imaps://firstname.lastname@example.org/Sent set postponed=imaps://email@example.com/Drafts # use headercache for IMAP (make sure this is a directory for better performance!) set header_cache=/var/tmp/.mutt # uncomment this to enable the sidebar feature #set sidebar_visible = yes set sidebar_width = 15 set sidebar_folder_indent = yes set sidebar_short_path = yes # make the progress updates not that expensive, this will update the bar every 300ms set read_inc = 1 set time_inc = 300 # only if you compiled Mutt with USE=gpgme, enable the gpgme backend set crypt_use_gpgme = yes # you can set this to hide gpg's verification output and only rely on Mutt's status flag #set crypt_display_signature = no # enable signing of emails by default set pgp_autosign = yes set pgp_sign_as = 0xXXXXXXXX # your gpg keyid here set pgp_replyencrypt = yes # mailboxes we want to monitor for new mail mailboxes "=" mailboxes "=Lists" # mailing lists for a Gentoo user (these are regexps!) subscribe "gentoo-.*@gentoo\\.org" # SMTP mailing configuration (for sending mail) set smtp_url=smtp://firstname.lastname@example.org/
It is a good practice to review all of the settings from the example configuration file above. There are many more configuration options, and some preferences may not be to your liking. Keep this in mind if Mutt doesn't function exactly the way you like when you are first setting it up.
The example .muttrc above sets up an IMAP account, uses an SMTP server to send mail, stores its cache in /var/tmp/.mutt, reads the known address aliases (think of it as an address book) from ~/.aliases and appends the signature from ~/.signature when composing new mail. For some IMAP servers it may be necessary to change the spool, record and postponed directories, as the folders Sent and Drafts may be under a folder called INBOX. Simply trying this out with Mutt is the simplest way to figure this out.
Once the .muttrc is setup, you are ready to launch Mutt by just running mutt. If you entered a valid IMAP server URL, Mutt will prompt for a password and afterwards load all messages. Note that the first time entering your mailbox may take a while if you have quite some messages, since Mutt's header cache is still empty. If this succeeds you're in your IMAP mailbox ready to go.
Navigation is intuitive, as is reading messages by just pressing the Enter key or Space bar. Mutt is quite Vim alike in that it uses key strokes to perform most of its actions. You best read Mutt's manual to become familiar with all existing functions (or press ? in Mutt) and what key they are bound to, or better, what key you like it to be bound to. Some essential keys are m (for message) to start composing a new message, q for quit, r for reply, s for save and p for print.
One of the features that Mutt has that is still not in today's most savvy email clients is the ability to display attachments inline through some viewer. The
auto_view directive in the .muttrc file tells Mutt which attachments (based on their MIME-type) it should view inline. To figure out how to do that, Mutt uses mailcap files to lookup how to display a certain MIME-type. Usually the system wide mailcap file isn't sufficient here, so you better start a ~/.mailcap file to put items in there for
copiousoutput that Mutt can display inline.
In the example .muttrc above
auto_view is enabled for
application/pdf files. These two show the extreme usefulness of this capability, because it means meeting notes sent as doc file now are perfectly fine readable without having to save the attachment and open it in LibreOffice. Instead the text just shows up in the message reader, that is, if you have a matching entry in your ~/.mailcap file.
application/msword; antiword '%s'; copiousoutput; description=Word Document; nametemplate=%s.doc application/pdf; pdftotext '%s' -; copiousoutput; description=PDF Document; nametemplate=%s.pdf
The above .mailcap example tells Mutt what to do to "view"
app-text/antiword), for the latter the program pdftotext (emerge app-text/poppler). You can go wild with these to for example display rendered HTML (give app-text/vilistextum a try), render vcards, or show ASCII representation of attached images. All you need to do is define how to call the program in your .mailcap, and tell Mutt to try to view it inline using the
Mutt is a very versatile console email client. If you like the concept, Mutt can be altered to behave in nearly any way through its configuration. Search the web to find others explaining how they did "it", or find one of the many patches that exist to make Mutt do even more. Gentoo applies a couple of very popular patches to Mutt, so make sure to check mutt -v if you want something more to make sure it is not yet already at your disposal. While learning Mutt is not necessarily easy, once it is in your fingers, it can make your mail experience much faster and efficient than with other clients. Searching for example is quite powerful if you know how to hit the right flags and know which regular expression narrows your search down. Enjoy Mutting!
This page is based on a document formerly found on our main website gentoo.org.
The following people contributed to the original document: Fabian Groffen (grobian)
They are listed here because wiki history does not allow for any external attribution. If you edit the wiki article, please do not add yourself here; your contributions are recorded on each article's associated history page.