Guide de localisation

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This page is a translated version of the page Localization/Guide and the translation is 38% complete.

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Fuseau horaire

In order to keep the system time properly according to the present location, the timezone needs to be set. Instructions how to do this for OpenRC based systems and systemd based systems can be found in the system time article.

Fonctionnement des locales

Que sont les locales ?

A locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining country and language specific settings. The locales and their data are part of the system library and can be found at /usr/share/i18n/locales/ on most systems. A locale name is generally named ab_CD where ab is the two (or three) letter language code (as specified in ISO-639) and CD is the two letter country code (as specified in ISO-3166). Variants like @euro or @latin are often appended to locale names, e.g. de_DE@euro or nan_TW@latin. Please explore Wikipedia to read more about locales and related articles.

Variables d'environnement pour les locales

Les variables qui contrôlent les différents aspects du réglage des locales sont présentées ci-dessous. Toutes prennent un nom de locale de la forme ab_CD indiquée ci-dessus.

Variable name Explanation
LANG Defines all locale settings at once, while allowing further individual customization via the LC_* settings below.
LC_COLLATE Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects e.g. output of sorted directory listings.
LC_CTYPE Define the character-handling properties for the system. This determines which characters are seen as alphabetic, numeric, and so on. This also determines the character set used, if applicable.
LC_MESSAGES Programs' localizations stored in /usr/share/locale/ for applications that use a message-based localization scheme (the majority of GNU programs; see the next chapters for further information on which programs do, and how to get the programs that don't to work).
LC_MONETARY Defines currency units and formatting of currency-type numeric values.
LC_NUMERIC Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
LC_TIME Defines formatting of dates and times.
LC_PAPER Defines default paper size.
LC_ALL Overrides all other settings.
Note
Some programs are written in such a way that they expect traditional English ordering of the alphabet, while some locales, most notably the Estonian one, use a different ordering. Therefore it's recommended to explicitly set LC_COLLATE to C when dealing with system-wide settings.
Warning
Using LC_ALL is strongly discouraged as it automatically overrides all other LC_* variables (LANG is not affected). This means that changes made by other means will be hidden until LC_ALL is set to a null string. It is probably best not to set it in a startup file.

Most typically, users only set the LANG variable globally.

Generating specific locales

Most users will probably only use one or maybe two locales on their system. How additional locales can be specified is explained in the /etc/locale.gen file.

CodeAjouter des locales à /etc/locale.gen

en_GB ISO-8859-1
en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE ISO-8859-1
de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15

This is a deprecated template. Help us update this template!

Note
Use an @euro value from /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED/ as the locale when using the Euro currency symbol (€) on non UTF-8 based locales.

The next step is to run locale-gen. It will generate all the locales specified in the /etc/locale.gen file and write them to the locale-archive (/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive).

root #locale-gen
 * Generating 4 locales (this might take a while) with 1 jobs
 *  (1/4) Generating en_GB.ISO-8859-1 ...                       [ ok ]
 *  (2/4) Generating en_GB.UTF-8 ...                            [ ok ]
 *  (3/4) Generating de_DE.ISO-8859-1 ...                       [ ok ]
 *  (4/4) Generating de_DE.ISO-8859-15@euro ...                 [ ok ]
 * Generation complete

Verify that the selected locales are available by running locale -a.

user $locale -a
C
POSIX
de_DE
de_DE.iso88591
de_DE.iso885915@euro
de_DE@euro
deutsch
en_GB
en_GB.iso88591
en_GB.utf8
german

The /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive file can be shown by localedef.

user $localedef --list-archive

Its raw content can be displayed using the strings command.

user $strings /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive | less

Configurer une locale

OpenRC

When using OpenRC locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically set in the /etc/env.d/02locale (for system-wide settings) and ~/.bashrc (for user-specific settings) file. More details can be found in the UTF-8 article. The system wide settings (/etc/env.d/02locale) can be managed through eselect locale. For instance, to set the LANG variable to the C value:

root #eselect locale list
Available targets for the LANG variable:
  [1]   C 
  [2]   POSIX
  [3]   en_US
  [4]   en_US.iso885915
  [5]   en_US.utf8
  [ ]   (free form)
root #eselect locale set 1

Of course, editing the file manually is possible as well to diversify the locale variables.

FILE /etc/env.d/02localeSetting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale
LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
LC_COLLATE="C"

It's also possible, and pretty common especially in a more traditional UNIX environment, to leave the global settings unchanged, i.e. in the C locale. Users can still specify their preferred locale in their own shell RC file:

FILE ~/.bashrcSetting the user locale
export LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
export LC_COLLATE="C"

Another way of configuring system is to leave it in the default C locale, but enable UTF-8 character representation at the same time. This option is achieved using the following settings in /etc/env.d/02locale:

CodeUtiliser la locale traditionnelle C tout en spécifiant UTF-8

LC_CTYPE=de_DE.UTF-8

This is a deprecated template. Help us update this template!

Using the above snippet, users will be able to see localized file names properly, while not being forced to completely use the selected language.

Once the right locale is set up, be sure to update the environment variables to make the system aware of the change.

Pour une locale au niveau du système entier :

root #env-update && source /etc/profile

Pour une locale spécifique à l'utilisateur :

user $source ~/.bashrc

After this, kill the X server by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Backspace, log out, then log in as a user.

Vérifiez maintenant si les changements sont effectifs :

user $locale

systemd

With systemd set the locale with the localectl command. Check the list of available locales with:

root #localectl list-locales

Then set the desired locale:

root #localectl set-locale LANG=de_DE.utf8

Pour terminer, vérifiez si le résultat est correct :

root #localectl | grep "System Locale"
   System Locale: LANG=de_DE.utf8

Agencement de clavier pour la console

OpenRC

The keyboard layout used by the console is set in /etc/conf.d/keymaps by the keymap variable. Valid values can be found in /usr/share/keymaps/YOUR_ARCH/. i386 has further subdivisions into layout (qwerty/, azerty/, etc.). Some languages have multiple options - experiment with the various options to decide which one fits the needs best.

FILE /etc/conf.d/keymapsSetting the console keymap
keymap="de"
#keymap="de-latin1"
#keymap="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"

systemd

With systemd the keymap layout used for the console can be set using the localectl command. First check the available keymap layouts:

root #localectl list-keymaps

Then set the requested console keymap layout:

root #localectl set-keymap it

Pour terminer, vérifiez si l'agencement a été correctement pris en compte :

root #localectl | grep "VC Keymap"
       VC Keymap: it

Agencement de clavier pour le serveur X

OpenRC

The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified in /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf by the XkbLayout option. For details visit the Xorg guide and the article about Keyboard layout switching.

systemd

With systemd the keymap layout for the X11 server can be set using the localectl command. First check the available X11 keymap layouts:

root #localectl list-x11-keymap-layouts

Then set the requested X11 keymap layout:

root #localectl set-x11-keymap it

Pour terminer, vérifiez si l'agencement de clavier pour le serveur X11 a été correctement pris en compte :

root #localectl | grep "X11 Layout"
      X11 Layout: it

NLS

For message based localization to work in programs that support it and have the nls (Native Language Support) USE flag, compile the programs with this flag set. Message strings are installed in /usr/share/locale/<locale>/LC_MESSAGES/<package>.mo files. Most of the programs using NLS also need the gettext library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Portage will automatically install it when needed.

After enabling the nls USE flag some packages might need to be re-emerged:

root #emerge --ask --changed-use --deep --with-bdeps=y @world

LINGUAS

There is also an additional USE_EXPAND flag called LINGUAS [1], which affects the localization files that get installed in gettext-based programs. The variable takes in space-separated list of language codes, and a suggested place to set it is /etc/portage/make.conf:

root #nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf
## (Ajout de la variable  LINGUAS. Par exemple pour l'allemand, le finnois et l'anglais:)
LINGUAS="de fi en"

With LINGUAS="", most ebuilds would install only the packages' default language but none of the LC_MESSAGES files.

A list of installed programs making use of the LINGUAS USE_EXPAND flag and their supported languages can be shown as follows:

user $eix -I -U linguas

A list of LINGUAS values that can be used is provided as /usr/portage/profiles/desc/linguas.desc:

user $grep -i french /usr/portage/profiles/desc/linguas.desc
fr - French locale
fr_CA - French locale for Canada
fr_FR - French locale for France

After setting the LINGUAS USE_EXPAND flag it may be necessary to re-emerge some packages:

root #emerge --ask --changed-use --deep --with-bdeps=y @world
Note
LINGUAS as a USE_EXPAND'ed variable is being replaced by the L10N variable (see below). This avoids a conceptual clash with the standard gettext behaviour. After a transition time for packages to be converted, LINGUAS will become a regular environment variable.

L10N

Another USE_EXPAND variable called L10N decides which extra localization support will be installed. This is commonly used for downloads of additional language packs by packages. Similar to LINGUAS, the variable takes a space separated list of language tags, and it can be set in /etc/portage/make.conf:

root #nano -w /etc/portage/make.conf
## (Add in the L10N variable. For instance, for German and Brazilian Portuguese:)
L10N="de pt-BR"

To set it per-package, edit /etc/portage/package.use and prefix the requested language packs with "l10n_", as shown in the next example:

FILE /etc/portage/package.use
app-text/aspell l10n_de l10n_pt_BR

Note that while the common two letter language codes (like de or fr) are identical in LINGUAS and L10N, more complex entries have a different syntax because L10N uses IETF language tags (aka BCP 47). For example, pt_BR and sr@latin in LINGUAS become pt-BR and sr-Latn in L10N, respectively.

A list of L10N values that can be used is provided as /usr/portage/profiles/desc/l10n.desc:

user $grep -i portuguese /usr/portage/profiles/desc/l10n.desc
pt - Portuguese
pt-BR - Portuguese (Brazil)
pt-PT - Portuguese (Portugal)

After setting the L10N USE_EXPAND variable it may be necessary to re-emerge some packages:

root #emerge --ask --changed-use --deep --with-bdeps=y @world

See also

External resources

References

  1. LINGUAS in Gentoo Development Guide

This article is based on a document formerly found on our main website gentoo.org.
The following people contributed to the original document: Alexander Holler, Steven Lucy, Benny Chuang, Lars Weiler, Tobias Scherbaum, Flammie Pirinen, nightmorph, klondike
They are listed here as the Wiki history does not allow for any external attribution. If you edit the Wiki article, please do not add yourself here; your contributions are recorded on the history page.