Embedded Handbook/General/Full

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Cross development has traditionally been a black art, requiring a lot of research, trial and error, and perseverance. Intrepid developers face a shortage of documentation and the lack of mature, comprehensive open source toolkits for multi-platform cross development. Ongoing work by the Embedded or Toolchain projects, and other contributors is yielding a Gentoo-based development platform that greatly simplifies cross development.

The toolchain

The term "toolchain" refers to the collection of packages used to build up a system (the "tools" which are used in the "chain" of events to take some input and produce some output). It is a loose definition in terms of what packages exactly are considered part of the toolchain, but for the sake of keeping things simple, we will consider the components that are needed to compile code into something fun and usable.

Your typical toolchain is therefore composed of the following:

Essential utilities for handling binaries (includes assembler and linker).
The GNU Compiler Collection (the C and C++ compiler).
sys-libs/glibc, sys-libs/uclibc-ng, or sys-libs/newlib
The system C library.
Kernel headers needed by the system C library.
The GNU debugger.

All proper Gentoo systems have a toolchain installed as part of the base system. This toolchain is configured to build binaries native to its host platform.

In order to build binaries on the host system for a non-native platform you'll need a special toolchain - a so-called cross toolchain - which can target that particular platform. Gentoo provides a simple but powerful tool called crossdev for this purpose. Crossdev can build and install arbitrary GCC-supported cross toolchains on the host system, and because Gentoo installs toolchain files into target-specific directories the toolchains built by crossdev will not interfere with the host's native toolchain.

Toolchain tuples

All toolchains have a prefix (think CHOST). More details on that can be found in the system tuples article.

Environment variables

Certain environment variables used by the Gentoo toolchain and Portage can thoroughly confuse developers inexperienced with cross development. The following table explains some tricky variables and provides sample values based on the cross development examples presented in this guide. See More terminology and variables (below) for more unusual variables and related concepts.

Variable name Meaning when building cross-toolchain Meaning when building cross-binaries
CBUILD Platform you are building on Platform you are building on
CHOST Platform the cross-toolchain will run on Platform the binaries built by cross-toolchain will run on
CTARGET Platform the binaries built by cross-toolchain will run on Platform the binaries built by cross-toolchain will run on. Redundant, but there's no harm in setting this, and a few binaries do like it.
ROOT Path to the virtual root (/) you are installing into
PORTAGE_CONFIGROOT Path to the virtual root (/) Portage can find its config files (like /etc/make.conf)

Say we have an AMD64 desktop as our normal Gentoo machine and we have an ARM PDA we wanted to develop for, the above table would look like:

Variable name Value for building cross-toolchain Value for building cross-binaries
CBUILD x86_64-pc-linux-gnu x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
CHOST x86_64-pc-linux-gnu arm-unknown-linux-gnu
CTARGET arm-unknown-linux-gnu Not set.
ROOT Not set - defaults to / /path/where/you/install
PORTAGE_CONFIGROOT Not set - defaults to / /path/where/your/portage/env/for/arm/pda/is

More terminology and variables

canadian cross
The process of building a cross-compiler which will run on a different machine from the one it was compiled on (CBUILD != CHOST && CHOST != CTARGET)
The system root is where all the cross-compiler libraries and headers are installed. In other words, every library and header the cross-compiler needs to generate cross-compiled binaries are put into this directory. In theory, this means the toolchain is good enough. In practice, the cross-compiler often wants some of a packages's library dependencies, such as ncurses, installed into sysroot first.
The system has a hardware Floating Point Unit (FPU) to handle floating point math
The system lacks a hardware FPU so all floating point operations are approximated with fixed point math
Position Independent Executable (-fPIE -pie)
Position Independent Code (-fPIC)
C run time

Creating a cross-compiler

The first thing users should know about building a toolchain is that some versions of toolchain components refuse to work together. Exactly which combinations are problematic is a matter that's constantly in flux as the Gentoo ebuild repository evolves. The only reliable way to determine what works is to run crossdev, adjusting individual component versions as necessary, until crossdev completes the toolchain build successfully. Even then, the cross toolchain may build binaries which break on the target system. Only through trial and error and patience will you arrive at a favorable combination of all factors.

Users do not have to worry about the cross-compiler interfering with the native build system. All of the toolchain packages are designed such that they are isolated from each other based on the target. This way cross-compilers can be installed for desired architecture(s) without breaking the rest of the system.



Generating a cross-compiler by hand is a long and painful process. This is why it has been fully integrated into Gentoo! A command-line front-end called crossdev will run emerge with all of the proper environment variables and install all the right packages to generate arbitrary cross-compilers based on the need of the user. First install crossdev:

root #emerge --ask sys-devel/crossdev

Consider installing the unstable version of crossdev to get all the latest fixes.

Those upgrading from older versions of crossdev, and have crossdev-wrappers installed, need to uninstall crossdev-wrappers first. The existing cross-toolchains will remain intact.

Only basic usage of crossdev is covered here, but crossdev can customize the process fairly well for most needs. Run crossdev --help to get some ideas on how to use crossdev. Here are some common usage options:

crossdev --g [gcc version] --l [(g)libc version] --b [binutils version] --k [kernel headers version] -P -v -t [tuple]
crossdev -S -P -v -t [tuple]


The first step is to select the proper tuple for the target. Here we will assume the user would like to build a cross-compiler for the SH4 (SuperH) processor with glibc running on Linux. This action will be performed on a PowerPC machine. Generate a SH4 cross-compiler:

root #crossdev --target sh4-unknown-linux-gnu
 * Host Portage ARCH:     ppc
 * Target Portage ARCH:   sh
 * Target System:         sh4-unknown-linux-gnu
 * Stage:                 4 (C/C++ compiler)

 * binutils:              binutils-[latest]
 * gcc:                   gcc-[latest]
 * headers:               linux-headers-[latest]
 * libc:                  glibc-[latest]

 * PORTDIR_OVERLAY:       /usr/local/portage
 * PORT_LOGDIR:           /var/log/portage
 * PKGDIR:                /usr/portage/packages/powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu/cross/sh4-unknown-linux-gnu
 * PORTAGE_TMPDIR:        /var/tmp/cross/sh4-unknown-linux-gnu
  _  -  ~  -  _  -  ~  -  _  -  ~  -  _  -  ~  -  _  -  ~  -  _  -  ~  -  _  -  ~  -  _  -  ~  -  _  
 * Forcing the latest versions of {binutils,gcc}-config/gnuconfig ...                          [ ok ]
 * Log: /var/log/portage/cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu-binutils.log
 * Emerging cross-binutils ...                                                                 [ ok ]
 * Log: /var/log/portage/cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu-gcc-stage1.log
 * Emerging cross-gcc-stage1 ...                                                               [ ok ]
 * Log: /var/log/portage/cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu-linux-headers.log
 * Emerging cross-linux-headers ...                                                            [ ok ]
 * Log: /var/log/portage/cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu-glibc.log
 * Emerging cross-glibc ...                                                                    [ ok ]
 * Log: /var/log/portage/cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu-gcc-stage2.log
 * Emerging cross-gcc-stage2 ...                                                               [ ok ]
At the moment it is not possible to set PORTAGE_CONFIGROOT before calling crossdev to a folder set to the architecture for the target. You have to use your own config. If you want to use arch specific USE flags, like altivec in a non-PowerPC architecture, you need to unmask the use flag in /usr/portage/base/use.mask, or temporarily change the system profile.

Quick test

If everything goes as planned,a shiny new compiler should now be present on the machine. Give it a spin!

Use the SH4 cross-compiler:

user $sh4-unknown-linux-gnu-gcc --version
sh4-unknown-linux-gnu-gcc (GCC) 4.2.0 (Gentoo 4.2.0 p1.4)
Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
user $echo 'int main(){return 0;}' > sh4-test.c
user $sh4-unknown-linux-gnu-gcc -Wall sh4-test.c -o sh4-test
user $file sh4-test
sh4-test: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Renesas SH, version 1 (SYSV), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, dynamically linked (uses shared libs), not stripped

If the crossdev command failed, you have the log file which you can review to see if the problem is local. If you're unable to fix the issue, you're welcome to file a bug in our Bugzilla.


To find out which tuple you should use, look over the output from the following command:

root #crossdev -t help

You can now find a newly compiled cross-compiler in the sysroot at /usr/${CTARGET}/. It's a good idea to create pre-built binary packages so you don't end up waiting another two to three hours every time you want to reinstall this toolchain.

Create binpkgs

root #quickpkg --include-unmodified-config=y cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu/gcc
root #quickpkg --include-unmodified-config=y cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu/glibc
root #quickpkg --include-unmodified-config=y cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu/binutils
root #quickpkg --include-unmodified-config=y cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu/linux-headers

If the quickpkg command warns about excluded files, please follow its prompts to include all files.

In the future the sysroot can be reinstalled by executing the following simple Portage command:

root #emerge -k cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu/gcc cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu/glibc cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu/binutils cross-sh4-unknown-linux-gnu/linux-headers


To uninstall a toolchain, simply use the --clean option. If you modified the sysroot by hand, you'll be prompted to delete every file inside, so you will want to prepend yes | to this command if you are sure:

Uninstall the SH4 cross-compiler:

root #crossdev --clean sh4-unknown-linux-gnu

In case you didn't already notice, deleting any and all files in the /usr/${CTARGET}/ directory is completely safe.

Cross-compiler internals

This section is included for posterity and in the hopes that others will find it useful. The target audience is people who (for some stupid reason or another) really really want to create their own cross compiler with binutils/(glibc|uclibc)/gcc all by themselves. This section is not meant to cover/document/whatever the myriad of build failures you are likely to see along the way. If you need such help, see the Beyond section in the handbook for some pointers. You certainly should not bug me or anyone else in Gentoo.
If you're still reading, you should really check out the crosstool project (again refer to the Beyond section) as that provides a distribution independent method for generating cross-compilers. While it does kind of stink, it is certainly the best (and really only) option out there for creating cross-compilers.


There are generally two ways to build a cross-compiler. The "accepted" way, and the cheater's shortcut.

The current "accepted" way is:

  1. binutils
  2. kernel headers
  3. libc headers
  4. gcc stage1 (c-only)
  5. libc
  6. gcc stage2 (c/c++/etc...)

The cheater's shortcut is:

  1. binutils
  2. kernel headers
  3. gcc stage1 (c-only)
  4. libc
  5. gcc stage2 (c/c++/etc...)

The reason people are keen on the shortcut is that the libc headers step tends to take quite a while, especially on slower machines. It can also be kind of a pain to setup kernel/libc headers without a usuable cross compiler. Note though that if you seek help with cross-compilers, upstream projects will not want to help you if you took the shortcut.

Also note that the shortcut requires the gcc stage1 to be "crippled". Since you're building without headers, you cannot enable the sysroot option nor can you build up proper gcc libs. This is OK if the only thing you use the stage1 is building the C library and a kernel, but beyond that you need a nice sysroot based compiler.

Below I will describe the "accepted" way as the steps are pretty much the same. You just need some extra patches for gcc in order to take the shortcut.


We will be cross-compiling using the sysroot method. But what does the sysroot do?

The sysroot tells GCC to consider dir as the root of a tree that contains a (subset of) the root filesystem of the target operating system. Target system headers, libraries and run-time object files will be searched in there.

The top level directory is commonly rooted in /usr/$CTARGET

CODE A typical sysroot layout
|-- bin/
|-- lib/            critical runtime libs (libc/ldso/etc...)
`-- usr/
    |-- include/    development headers
    |   |-- linux/      like the linux kernel
    |   `-- asm/        like the arch-specific
    `-- lib/        non critical runtime libs / development libs

As you can see, it's just like the directory setup in / but in /usr/$CTARGET. This setup is of course not an accident but designed on purpose so you can easily migrate applications/libraries out of /usr/$CTARGET and into / on your target board. If you wanted, you could even be lazy and use the /usr/$CTARGET as a quick NFS root!

The old style of cross-compilers was to use --prefix=/usr/$CTARGET. If you are using versions of binutils/gcc that predate sysroot support, you may have to do just this. I will not document this because (1) you should not be using such old/crusty/busted versions and (2) it's quite a huge pain compared to sysroot.


Grab the latest binutils tarball and unpack it.

The --disable-werror option is to prevent binutils from aborting the compile due to warnings. Great feature for developers, but a pain for users. Configure and build binutils:

root #make
root #make install DESTDIR=$PWD/install-root

The reason we install into the localdir is so we can remove crap that doesn't belong. For example, a normal install will give us /usr/lib/libiberty.a which doesn't belong in our host /usr/lib. So clean out stuff first:

root #rm -rf install-root/usr/{info,lib,man,share}

And install what's left:

root #cp -a install-root/* /

Kernel headers

Grab the latest Linux tarball and unpack it. There are two ways of installing the kernel headers: sanitized and unsanitized. The former is clearly better (but requires a recent version of the Linux kernel), but we'll quickly cover both.

Clearly you'll have to replace $ARCH with a value that makes sense for your platform.

Building and install the unsanitized headers:

root #yes "" | make ARCH=$ARCH oldconfig prepare
root #mkdir -p /usr/$CTARGET/usr/include
root #cp -a include/linux include/asm-generic /usr/$CTARGET/usr/include/
root #cp -a include/asm-$ARCH /usr/$CTARGET/usr/include/asm

Build and install the sanitized headers:

root #make ARCH=$ARCH headers_install INSTALL_HDR_PATH=/usr/$CTARGET/usr

System libc headers

Grab the latest glibc tarball and unpack it. Glibc is picky, so you'll have to compile in a directory separate from the source code. Build and install the glibc headers:

root #mkdir build
root #cd build
root #../configure --host=$CTARGET --prefix=/usr --with-headers=/usr/$CTARGET/usr/include --without-cvs --disable-sanity-checks
root #make -k install-headers install_root=/usr/$CTARGET

Glibc sucks at life so you have to do a few things by hand:

root #mkdir -p /usr/$CTARGET/usr/include/gnu
root #touch /usr/$CTARGET/usr/include/gnu/stubs.h
root #cp bits/stdio_lim.h /usr/$CTARGET/usr/include/bits/

GCC stage 1 (C only)

We first have to help gcc find the current libc headers:

root #ln -s usr/include /usr/$CTARGET/sys-include

Then grab the latest gcc tarball and unpack it:

root #mkdir build
root #cd build
root #make
root #make install DESTDIR=$PWD/install-root

Same as binutils, gcc leaves some stuff behind we don't want. Clean the gcc stage 1:

user $rm -rf install-root/usr/{info,include,lib/libiberty.a,man,share}

System libc

Remove the old glibc build directory and recreate it:

root #rm -rf build
root #mkdir build
root #cd build
root #../configure --host=$CTARGET --prefix=/usr --without-cvs
root #make
root #make install install_root=/usr/$CTARGET

GCC stage 2 (all frontends)

Build up a full GCC now. Select whichever compiler frontends you like; we'll just do C/C++ for simplicity. Build and install the gcc stage 2:

root #./configure --target=$CTARGET --prefix=/usr --with-sysroot=/usr/$CTARGET --enable-languages=c,c++ --enable-shared --disable-checking --disable-werror
root #make
root #make install

Core runtime files

There are many random core runtime files that people wonder what they may be for. Let's explain:

Files provided by sys-libs/glibc
File Purpose
crt0.o Older style of the initial runtime code. No one generates this anymore.
crt1.o Newer style of the initial runtime code. Contains the _start symbol which sets up the env with argc/argv/libc _init/libc _fini before jumping to the libc main. glibc calls this file 'start.S'.
crti.o Defines the function prolog; _init in the .init section and _fini in the .fini section. glibc calls this 'initfini.c'.
crtn.o Defines the function epilog. glibc calls this 'initfini.c'.
Scrt1.o Used in place of crt1.o when generating PIEs.
gcrt1.o Used in place of crt1.o when generating code with profiling information. Compile with -pg. Produces output suitable for the gprof util.
Mcrt1.o Like gcrt1.o, but is used with the prof utility. glibc installs this as a dummy file as it's useless on linux systems.
Files provided by sys-devel/gcc
File Purpose
crtbegin.o GCC uses this to find the start of the constructors.
crtbeginS.o Used in place of crtbegin.o when generating shared objects/PIEs.
crtbeginT.o Used in place of crtbegin.o when generating static executables.
crtend.o GCC uses this to find the start of the destructors.
crtendS.o Used in place of crtend.o when generating shared objects/PIEs.

The general linking order:

crt1.o crti.o crtbegin.o [-L paths] [user objects] [gcc libs] [C libs] [gcc libs] crtend.o crtn.o

Cross-compiling with Portage


There are a few important variables that will be used throughout this section:

Variable name Meaning
CBUILD Platform you are building on.
CHOST Platform you are compiling for.
ROOT The virtual / you are installing into.
PORTAGE_CONFIGROOT The virtual / Portage can find its config files (like make.conf).

These variables can be set by hand, but that obviously gets tedious very quickly. A better idea is to stick these into a shell script to avoid typing them each time.

Filesystem setup

Cross-compiling a system generally involves two directory structures. The differences between them can be difficult to understand, but they are important concepts to cross-compiling.

The first directory structure to consider is the sysroot. Please read the Introduction chapter for the definition of sysroot.

The second directory structure is the real root. This one is much simpler to understand: it's where the bootable stage3-like installation of Gentoo is located. This installation can then be copied to the target device.

The common convention is to use the /usr/${CTARGET}/ directory as the sysroot since the include/library directories in this tree are already encoded into the gcc cross-compiler for searching. You could use another directory and then add custom -I/-L paths to the CPPFLAGS/LDFLAGS, but this has historically proven to be problematic in enough corner cases to be discouraged for practical use. In the embedded handbook, we'll assume the sysroot is being used as the development ROOT.

For your runtime system, you'll need a much slimmer/trimmed-down setup. The files you remove from a normal installed package is why this tree is not suitable for compiling against. If you build binary packages while installing into your sysroot, then you can use those binary packages in conjunction with the INSTALL_MASK variable to trim out most things. See man make.conf for more information.

Intro: crossdev's wrappers

These are simple wrapper scripts that will setup the environment variables to point to the right places for you to be able to cross compile using emerge. PORTAGE_CONFIGROOT and ROOT both point to the SYSROOT.

root #emerge --ask sys-devel/crossdev
crossdev's wrappers automatically configure the CBUILD and CHOST variables. Do not set them by hand in the environment!
Before beginning any cross-emerge, you'll need to run emerge-wrapper --init. Be sure to follow any instructions printed by emerge-wrapper before beginning your cross-emerge.

We can use these tools for both installing into your development root (sysroot) and into your runtime root. For the latter, simply specify by using the --root option. For example if you had merged via crossdev an armv4tl-softfloat-linux-gnueabi toolchain you would then invoke the command just like normal emerge. But using the ctarget prefix:

root #armv4tl-softfloat-linux-gnueabi-emerge pkg0 pkg1 pkg2

By default these wrappers use the --root-deps=rdeps option to avoid the host dependencies from being pulled into the deptree. This can lead to incomplete deptrees. Therefore you may want to use --root-deps alone to see the full depgraph.

By default crossdev will link to the generic embedded profile. This is done to simplify things, but the user may wish to use a more advanced targeted profile. In order to do that we can update the profile symlink.

root #ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default/linux/arm/13.0 ${SYSROOT}/etc/portage/make.profile

To change settings (such as USE flags) for the target system, edit the standard Portage config files:

root #${EDITOR} ${SYSROOT}/etc/portage/make.conf

Sometimes there are some additional, cross-compile-incompatible tests that must be overridden for configure scripts. To make this possible, crossdev exports a few variables to force the test to get the answer it should receive. This helps prevent bloat in packages which add local functions to workaround issues it assumes the target system has because it could not run the test while cross-compiling (because, of course, it's not running on the target system). From time-to-time additional variables may need to be added to these files in /usr/share/crossdev/include/site/ in order to get a package to compile. To figure out the variable that needs added, it is often as simple as grepping the configure script for the autoconf variable (which often begins with ac_) and adding it to the appropriate target file. This becomes easier with ebuild development experience.


If you want to uninstall and delete your work, then you can safely remove the sysroot tree without affecting any native packages. See also the section in the crossdev guide about uninstalling.

Cross-compiling the kernel


First install the relevant kernel sources. A kernel sources package can be quickly emerged from the Gentoo ebuild repository or fetch the latest sources from kernel.org. The method for actually compiling the kernel is all the same.

You should install the kernel into the sysroot so that if you want to cross-compile packages which include kernel modules, the process will be transparent. Otherwise, the actual place where you build the kernel does not matter. Some people build all their kernels in /usr/src/ for example.

Setup cross-compiling

There are two fundamental variables that the kernel uses to select the target architecture. Normally these values are guessed based on your build environment, but of course that environment here does not match our target embedded system, so we'll need to override them. The variables in question are ARCH and CROSS_COMPILE. The default values for both are found in the top-level Makefile and the values of both may be overridden on the command line.

The ARCH variable is the architecture you're targeting as the kernel knows it. So while portage and other people may use "x86", the kernel uses "i386". Peek in the arch/ subdirectory real quick to figure out what you want to use.

Hopefully the CROSS_COMPILE variable is pretty self-explanatory. Set this to the prefix of your toolchain (including the trailing dash "-"). So if your toolchain is invoked as say x86_64-pc-linux-gnu-gcc, just chop off that trailing gcc and that's what you use: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu-.

There is an additional variable, INSTALL_MOD_PATH, which defines where the /lib directory will be created, and all the modules stored. While you don't have to transfer the kernel sources to your target device, if you build any modules, you'll want this directory.

There are really two ways you can setup the system. You can modify the toplevel Makefile or you can override the relevant variables on the command line. How you do it is largely a matter of taste, so we'll cover both. Pick one of the following.

FILE MakefileThe vanilla Makefile
ARCH            ?= $(SUBARCH)
FILE MakefileSet the ARCH and CROSS_COMPILE default values
ARCH            ?= arm
CROSS_COMPILE   ?= arm-unknown-linux-gnu-

Overriding on the command-line (instead of in the Makefile) would look something like this:

root #make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-unknown-linux-gnu-

You can use a little helper script if you need to hop between different kernel trees at the same time. We'll call this script xkmake:

FILE xkmake
exec make ARCH="arm" CROSS_COMPILE="arm-unknown-linux-gnu-" INSTALL_MOD_PATH="${SYSROOT}" "$@"

So now when you want to build a kernel or do anything else, you just execute xkmake in place of make.

Configure and compile

At this point, configuring and compiling the kernel is like any other kernel, so we won't go into depth as there are plenty of HOWTOs and guides out there which can treat the subject in much greater detail.

root #cd "${SYSROOT}/usr/src/linux"
root #xkmake menuconfig
root #xkmake

Cross compiling software with a QEMU user chroot.



The host system kernel will need support for miscellaneous binary formats. This is achived via the binfmt_misc module. Add the CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC=m or CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC=y symbols to the host's kernel .config file. If this module is not built already, then the development host will require a reboot after the kernel update and modules_install.

Executable file formats  --->
  <*> Kernel support for MISC binaries

Package configuration

In order to take advantage of QEMU user mode a few steps are necessary. First the app-emulation/qemu package must be emerged with the right settings. Specifically this means building with USE=static-user and setting QEMU_USER_TARGETS to include the targets that will be utilized.

See man portage(5) for other ways of doing this:

root #echo app-emulation/qemu static-user >> /etc/portage/package.use

Tweak the list here to include the necessary target(s). See the output of emerge -pv app-emulation/qemu for the full list:

For Raspberry Pi running a 32-bit stage3 build, be sure to select QEMU_USER_TARGETS="arm" here. For 64-bit stage3 builds, select aarch64. When in doubt set both.

To build all targets:

root #echo 'QEMU_SOFTMMU_TARGETS="alpha aarch64 arm i386 m68k mips mips64 mips64el mipsel ppc ppc64 s390x sh4 sh4eb sparc sparc64 x86_64"' >> /etc/portage/make.conf
root #echo 'QEMU_USER_TARGETS="alpha aarch64 arm armeb i386 m68k mips mipsel ppc ppc64 ppc64abi32 s390x sh4 sh4eb sparc sparc32plus sparc64"' >> /etc/portage/make.conf

Then install the package:

root #emerge --ask app-emulation/qemu

At this point it is wise to create a binary package for QEMU:

root #quickpkg app-emulation/qemu

Register binary format handlers

Mount the binfmt_misc handler if it is not already mounted, then register the format with the kernel via the procfs:

root #[ -d /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc ] || modprobe binfmt_misc
root #[ -f /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register ] || mount binfmt_misc -t binfmt_misc /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc

Do not register a handler that matches the host machine (in this example, registers for x86 and AMD64 has been excluded since the host machine).

32-bit registers:

root #echo ':arm:M::\x7fELF\x01\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x28\x00:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\x00\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-arm:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':armeb:M::\x7fELF\x01\x02\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x28:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\x00\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-armeb:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':alpha:M::\x7fELF\x02\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x26\x90:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xfe\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-alpha:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':mips:M::\x7fELF\x01\x02\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x08:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\x00\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-mips:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':mipsel:M::\x7fELF\x01\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x08\x00:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\x00\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-mipsel:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':ppc:M::\x7fELF\x01\x02\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x14:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-ppc:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':sh4:M::\x7fELF\x01\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x2a\x00:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\x00\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfb\xff\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-sh4:' >/proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':sh4eb:M::\x7fELF\x01\x02\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x2a:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-sh4eb:' >/proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':sparc:M::\x7fELF\x01\x02\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x02:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-sparc:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':m68k:M::\x7fELF\x01\x02\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x04:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\x00\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-m68k:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register

Add 64-bit registers:

root #echo ':aarch64:M::\x7fELF\x02\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\xb7\x00:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfc\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-aarch64:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':ppc64:M::\x7fELF\x02\x02\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x15:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfc\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-ppc64:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
root #echo ':riscv64:M::\x7fELF\x02\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\xf3\x00:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\x00\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-riscv64:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register


After this, make sure the binfmt service is (re-)started:


root #rc-service qemu-binfmt start

It may be wise for the services to be started by default on boot:

root #rc-update add qemu-binfmt default


For the systemd-binfmt service, add files containing the desired handler registration strings under /etc/binfmt.d/. For example, for aarch64 and arm systems:

FILE /etc/binfmt.d/qemu-aarch64-static.confSpecifying an aarch64 binfmt-misc handler for systemd-binfmt
FILE /etc/binfmt.d/qemu-arm-static.confSpecifying an arm binfmt-misc handler for systemd-binfmt
In the FileBox above, the eighth byte of the mask has been set to fc (rather than ff), to allow programs like gcc to be executed. See for example Debian bug #799120.

With the files created in /etc/binfmt.d/, systemd will now find them automatically at system boot time. See man 5 binfmt.d for more information.

Since the files were likely created just a few moments ago, it will be necessary to restart the service once to register the binary formats:

root #systemctl restart systemd-binfmt

To confirm the service is running properly after restarting:

root #systemctl status systemd-binfmt

Setup chroot

Download the desired stage tarball:

root #wget http://arch-stageball

Unpack the tarball:

root #tar -xzvf arch-stageball
root #cd arch-stageball

Install the static qemu into the chroot:

root #ROOT=$PWD/ emerge --usepkgonly --oneshot --nodeps qemu
root #mkdir -p usr/portage

Mount the required directories:

root #mount --bind /usr/portage usr/portage
root #mount --bind /proc proc
root #mount --bind /sys sys
root #mount --bind /dev dev
root #mount --bind /dev/pts dev/pts

Chroot into the environment:

root #chroot . /bin/bash --login

Keep QEMU from being altered within the chroot (if deleted or reinstalled within the chroot, breakage will occur):

root #echo 'EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS="$EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS --exclude app-emulation/qemu"' >>/etc/portage/make.conf
root #echo app-emulation/qemu >>/var/lib/portage/world

Unmount the various file systems when they are no longer in use:

root #umount usr/portage sys proc dev/pts dev

Sometimes we'll need to pass additional args to QEMU (CPU model), so we'll create a wrapper script (in C) that'll call QEMU with it:

FILE qemu-wrapper.c
 * pass arguments to qemu binary

#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int main(int argc, char **argv, char **envp) {
	char *newargv[argc + 3];

	newargv[0] = argv[0];
	newargv[1] = "-cpu";
	newargv[2] = "cortex-a8"; /* here you can set the cpu you are building for */

	memcpy(&newargv[3], &argv[1], sizeof(*argv) * (argc -1));
	newargv[argc + 2] = NULL;
	return execve("/usr/bin/qemu-arm", newargv, envp);

Compile the wrapper with:

root #gcc -static qemu-wrapper.c -O3 -s -o qemu-wrapper

Then copy into the chroot. Notice the first example ARM entry in the binfmt_misc section uses this method.


Currently qemu does not support pid-sandbox and network-sandbox.

This issue can be worked around by setting the FEATURES environment variable before each call to emerge and other Portage tools in the chroot:

root #env FEATURES="-pid-sandbox -network-sandbox" emerge
root #env FEATURES="-pid-sandbox -network-sandbox" equery

Alternatively, modify Portage's FEATURES variable within the chroot.

FILE /etc/portage/make.conf
FEATURES="-pid-sandbox -network-sandbox"

Frequently asked questions

I get "configure: error: C compiler cannot create executables"

This is a generic error and can be caused by just about anything. The test is pretty simple: can the requested compiler create an executable? However, this relies on many things being correct: the toolchain itself being completely sane, the compiler and compiler flags being appropriate, your environment set up properly, etc... The only way to find out the real source of the problem is to open up the generated config.log file and scroll down to where this test is run and see what exactly the error message is that the toolchain is spitting out.

"epatch" always fails in newly compiled system

The bash package does not properly cross-compile and mixes the host signal definitions with those of the target. This manifests itself differently depending on the combination of host architecture and target architecture. To resolve the issue, simply re-compile bash natively. "But bash uses epatch!" you exclaim. In that case, you will need to modify the ebuild and comment out all the calls to epatch. Once you've installed the fixed bash this way, uncomment all of the bash lines and rebuild it again.

uClibc build segfaults/crashes while building locale

The uClibc locale support is pretty experimental at this point. Unless you really need support for it (and you're willing to help bang on the problem), simply disable support by adding -nls -iconv -pregen -userlocales values to the USE flags when building uClibc.