ESPRESSOBin

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Overview

This documents the basic setup for Marvell Espressobin ARM64 network switch-ish board. It appears to be the only similar-class Marvell board with open docs (ie, not protected by NDA). Googling reveals a mix of both proprietary and "open" resources (and github appears to contain a mix of both, so ignore links and other references to "extranet"). There appears to be one main site for the ESPRESSOBin boards, with the corresponding vendor sources mainly on github.

History

The Marvell Espressobin was originally a kickstarter board by Globalscale Technologies Inc. It is a high performance 64 bit dual-core networking computing platform based on the ARMv8 architecture and has low power consumption. The board is powered by Marvell's Armada 3700 dual-core SoC chipset which runs up to 1.2GHz.

At this point there are several variants of the Espressobin hardware, however, the newer device trees exist only in the Marvell and GTI github repos (and corresponding vendor kernel images). The actual hardware differences are mainly DDR size/speed and eMMC (whether it exists and how big). The board stencil should show which hardware version is present:

  • v5 espressobin: DDR3 with or without soldered eMMC
  • v7 espressobin: DDR4 with or without soldered eMMC
  • "ultra" espressobin: DDR4 with 8 GB eMMC

The above differences are reflected in the new device-tree names.

Important
The mainline kernel has recently updated from the single espressobin device tree file to separate blobs for each variant. This change breaks the older/factory u-boot so a newer u-boot needs to be flashed to successfully load both new and legacy dt blobs.

Pros:

  • Solid mainline support
  • Great network/SATA performance
  • Mini PCIe expansion slot
  • 2 GbE LAN ports, 1 GbE WAN port
  • USB 3 host port
  • ATF-based boot protocol
  • 1 GB or 2 GB RAM

Cons:

  • no video/audio
  • ATF-based boot protocol
    • somewhat complicated u-boot build process

The Gentoo arm64 offering is still experimental at the time of writing. That means that very little is marked stable. Expect to use ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~arm64" and then use package.accept_keywords too.

What Works

All the core hardware should be supported in latest mainline kernel (tested on 4.13.12) and u-boot 2017.11-rc4.

  • Network switch
  • USB 2.0/3
  • MMC
  • SATA
  • PCIE
  • UART over micro-USB
  • Hardware Crypto
  • SPI flash

Untested

  • GPIO/SPI/I2C (on the connectors)
  • PCIe

What's Required

  • Gentoo Install on a PC
  • microSD card reader for the PC
  • ESPRESSOBin board
  • 12V PSU
  • microSD card > 8G
  • micro USB cable
  • network cable

The contents of the microSD card will be wiped during the install.

Update U-boot

Starting with the 5.10.x mainline kernel, the U-boot/ATF firmware needs updating in order to load the newer device trees (required for eMMC and v7 hardware). The build process is reasonably well-documented on the espressobin wiki (see the Reference links at the bottom). Some of us are lazy (or just need to do other stuff) and have already tested the flash images from the espressobin wiki to make sure they load the new device trees (download said flash image blobs from the espressobin tech-spec page and flash either the debug or release blob for the board). Do not forget to setup the u-boot environment again after flashing. Also note this applies if using any of the newer vendor kernels (either Marvell or GTI).

Installation Overview

  • Install crossdev on the PC
  • Build mainline u-boot (optional)
  • Fetch the mainline kernel (or use the builder script)
  • Partition the microSD card
  • Fetch the Gentoo bits of the install
  • Cross compile and install the kernel
  • Setup networking and root passwd
  • Boot with serial console to test

Install Crossdev on the PC

crossdev is Gentoos' tool for building cross compiler tool chains. Once it's installed, it will be used to build the arm64 kernel on the Gentoo PC.

root #emerge --ask crossdev

will install the crossdev tool.

Build mainline u-boot (optional)

U-boot has a rather complicated build and flash process, which is now documented in the repo manifest link below. The version of u-boot in SPI flash on the board I received is 2015.01-armada-17.02.0-g8128e91 and the default environment is set to boot from mmc. The 2017 updates seem to work fine, albeit with worse initial env config than factory.

As mentioned in the above note, building u-boot (either mainline or Marvell) is optional; that said, some extra "features" can be gained by building/flashing mainline u-boot instead of the Marvell fork. One useful feature in mainline that's already enabled are the distro defaults, which includes the extlinux/syslinux boot config file.

To build mainline u-boot/ATF for espressobin, either follow the manual steps in the two reference links below, or else follow the readme steps on the marvell-armada branch of this repo manifest

Important
When choosing to build u-boot, there is a secondary cross toolchain that must

also be built along with the primary one below. For espressobin, this is a cortex-M3 baremetal

arm toolchain.

After building the aarch64 toolchain, the secondary toolchain can be built with a command something like this:

root #USE="hardened multitarget lzma -multilib -openmp -go -fortran -jit -vtv" EXTRA_ECONF="--enable-newlib-nano-formatted-io --enable-newlib-nano-malloc --with-newlib --disable-multilib --disable-libsanitizer --with-arch=armv7e-m+fp --with-float-abi=hard --with-mode=thumb --with-abi=aapcs-linux --enable-libstdcxx-time=no" ELIBC="newlib" crossdev --ov-output /path/to/your/local-crossdev -t arm-none-eabi --ex-gdb
Important
Create your crossdev overlay first; see the following section.

Use Crossdev to Build A Cross Compiler

root #crossdev -t aarch64-unknown-linux-gnu

Recommended crossdev setup:

  • do use the most current version, eg, at least sys-devel/crossdev-20201129
  • do setup your crossdev overlay first
  • optionally adjust USE and EXTRA_ECONF flags as needed

To setup a local overlay for crossdev to use, see the crossdev section of the Custom ebuild repository wiki page. Setup your overlay as shown, populate the config files, then use the --ov-output option to set the path to your overlay.

The crossdev command expects at least the target tuple, with optional version specifiers for the toolchain components and more (see the help output and README file). The short command above will use the "latest" versions available and its own overlay detection (which you probably don't want) so use of the output-overlay argument is recommended, as shown in the following examples.

Important
Do not use -S to build a stable toolchain, arm64 moves quickly

There are some crossdev examples in the arm overlay; an example "fancy" crossdev command for arm64 might be:

root #USE="hardened multitarget lzma -multilib -openmp -go -fortran -jit" EXTRA_ECONF="--disable-multilib --disable-libsanitizer" crossdev --ov-output /path/to/your/local-crossdev -t aarch64-unknown-linux-gnu --ex-gdb
Important
Crossdev insists that many of the files in /etc/portage/ are directories

Convert files as crossdev asks e.g.

error: please convert /etc/portage/package.env to a directory

by appending _file to the existing filename

root #mv /etc/portage/package.env /etc/portage/package.env_file

making the directory

root #mkdir /etc/portage/package.env

then moving package.env_file into the directory.

root #mv /etc/portage/package.env_file /etc/portage/package.env

Rinse and repeat until crossdev is happy.

crossdev will take a while. It is building

binutils:              binutils-[latest]
gcc:                   gcc-[latest]
headers:               linux-headers-[latest]
libc:                  glibc-[latest]

When crossdev completes, the cross toolchain is ready:

user $$ gcc-config -l
[1] aarch64-unknown-linux-gnu-9.2.0 *

It will also create an arm64 target root in /usr/aarch64-unknown-linux-gnu/ This is used by cross emerge.

Pure cross compiling, other than the kernel, is out of scope of this guide.

Fetch, Configure and Build the Kernel

There are some prebuilt vendor kernel images for this board, but mainline is preferred.

Fetch the Kernel

The kernel choices, either "stock" mainline or gentoo-sources, can be built by hand, or using the kernel build scripts with some Armbian patches (older kernels only). Note there are older ebuilds in the arm overlay that incorporate the appropriate gentoo patches, mvebu64 patches, as well as updated defconfigs available, see https://github.com/sarnold/arm64-multiplatform

UPDATE: For the Gentoo way with no extra patches, use gentoo-sources 5.10.14-ish *and* the mainline u-boot flash-image.

So either use the builder scripts (borrowed from RCN repo and updated for ESPRESSOBin) or grab the defconfig and do it manually. The build scripts will clone linux-stable if not configured (see the file system.sh.sample and copy it to system.sh, then set your CC prefix kernel path).

user $git clone https://github.com/sarnold/arm64-multiplatform
user $cd arm64-multiplatform

For the latest, use the v5.10.x branch, edit system.sh, then run build_kernel.sh and wait for your shiny new kernel in the deploy/ directory.

At the end of the build, it will output the kernel version string to export for the install commands later. Something like:

-----------------------------
Script Complete
eewiki.net: [user@localhost:~$ export kernel_version=4.13.12-aarch64-r0]
-----------------------------

Note
The build_kernel.sh script will start from a fresh clone of the kernel source, apply patches,

run make menuconfig, etc. To make changes or fiddle in the kernel tree, rebuild using the tools/rebuild.sh

script instead (the latter will start a build using the existing tree).

Configure The Kernel

Once the scripts have cloned the kernel tree and applied any patches, it will wait at the menuconfig screen. Note the default config used should have all the required hardware support already enabled, but may not have all the network tools you want yet (the config is still a WIP).

More confident readers may be tempted to trim things out or add things now. A word of advice - don't, at least, not until the system boots.

Cross Compiling The Kernel

The scripts will use the toolchain arch set in system.sh but if you want to compile it manually the proper command line would be something like:

user $make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-unknown-linux-gnu-

Partition the microSD card

Warning
This Step Will Destroy ALL The Data on the Card

Background

The current vendor u-boot environment is already set to look for a kernel and device tree blob in the boot directory of the first partition, as well as use the first partition as root. Therefore only one partition is required (or at least make sdX1 the rootfs).

Warning
Many boards (even in mainline u-boot) do not yet support all ext4 defaults so 64bit metadata and checksums must be disabled

Partitioning

Depending on how the microSD card is connected to you PC, it my be /dev/sdX or /dev/mmcblkY

Warning
Check! Do Get It Right - Don't Ruin your PC Install

In the example below, it's /dev/sdb. On sdcards, using a swapfile instead of a separate partition is recommended.

Clean the card and format with options

root #export DISK=/dev/your_sdcard_device
root #dd if=/dev/zero of=${DISK} bs=1M count=10

Using the partitioning tool of your choice, make one partition on your microSD card.

root (/)

Using fdisk, and your microSD card block device, not the example /dev/sdb unless it's correct for your setup

root #fdisk ${DISK}

Use ext4 for root:

root #mkfs.ext4 -L rootfs -O ^metadata_csum,^64bit -T news ${DISK}1
Important
-T news makes more inodes for lots of small files

The i-node count cannot be changed after filesystem creation and can limit the number of files on a files system. The Gentoo repository alone needs over 17,000 i-nodes.

Fetch the Gentoo bits of the install

To make it easy to cross refer to the Gentoo_Handbook

root #mkdir /mnt/gentoo

Mount the microSD card root filesystem at /mnt/gentoo

root #mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/gentoo

Install the arm64 Stage 3

Following the Gentoo_Handbook fetch the arm64 stage3 and untar it to /mnt/gentoo in the normal way.

/mnt/gentoo/tmp should be empty. Clear it now.

root #rm -rf /mnt/gentoo/tmp/*

Install a Portage Snapshot

This step is not actually needed to boot but emerge won't work without it

Following the Gentoo Handbook, fetch and unpack a portage snapshot in the normal way.

Careful readers can copy their host /var/db/repos/gentoo.

Populating /boot

All that's needed here is the kernel binary and the proper device tree blob(s). If you have not flashed mainline u-boot, the file names have to match what the vendor u-boot expects, so just copy the files as-is and make symlinks to the required names (see below). For mainline u-boot simply use make install for the kernel/dtbs/modules or copy them however you wish.

Install the Kernel to the microSD Card

The kernel was built above, now to install it.

The kernel is in three parts

  1. kernel binary
  2. device tree blob
  3. kernel modules

Install The Kernel Binary

As root or via sudo, copy the kernel binary from the build location, either from your kernel tree (/path/to/your/tree/linux/arch/arm64/boot/Image) or the deploy directory:

user $sudo cp -v ./arm64-multiplatform/deploy/${kernel_version}.Image /mnt/gentoo/boot/

Install The Device Tree

The device tree binary (.dtb) describes the hardware to the kernel. This avoids having all the existing hardware configurations hard coded into the kernel.

Extract the following .dtb file from ./arm64-multiplatform/deploy/${kernel_version}-aarch64-r0-dtbs.tar.gz and copy it to the boot directory:

user $sudo cp -v ./arm64-multiplatform/deploy/armada-3720-espressobin.dtb /mnt/gentoo/boot/

Create the Symlinks for Vendor U-Boot

Change to the mounted boot directory and symlink the files to the expected names:

user $cd /mnt/gentoo/boot
user $sudo ln -snf ${kernel_version}.Image Image
user $sudo ln -snf armada-3720-espressobin.dtb armada-3720-community.dtb
user $cd -

Install The Kernel Modules

For a hand-built/installed kernel, don't foget to run make with the modules_install arg. From the top of the kernel tree, install the kernel modules

user $cd /path/to/your/tree/linux
user $ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-unknown-linux-gnu- sudo make modules_install INSTALL_MOD_PATH=/mnt/gentoo

Otherwise, unpack the kernel modules tarball from the deploy directory:

user $sudo tar xfv ./arm64-multiplatform/deploy/${kernel_version}-modules.tar.gz -C /mnt/gentoo/

Checking The Kernel Install (vendor u-boot)

user $ls /mnt/gentoo/boot
4.13.12-aarch64-r0.Image   armada-3720-espressobin.dtb  Image
armada-3720-community.dtb  config-4.13.12-aarch64-r0
user $ls /mnt/gentoo/lib/modules
4.13.12-aarch64-r0

Shows that the kernel and modules were installed to the correct locations.

Flashing and Configuring the Bootloader

You really should update the bootloader firmware, especially if you still have a 2015 version in SPI flash. That said, there is some risk involved, so make sure you have solid power/serial connections. And don't panic... There are documented recovery methods if somehow your cat eats the power cord at just the wrong time.

Obtaining the Firmware

The available choices are:

  • Download the espressobin flash images
  • Build Marvell/GTI u-boot/ATF
  • Build mainline u-boot/ATF

Note the main differences between the above two build options are 1) mainline u-boot, and 2) master branches for the dependencies (as recommended in the ATF docs).

Flashing the Firmware

Once you have a shiny new flash image, use either tftp or a USB stick/sdcard to flash it. See the bootloader update page on the espressobin wiki and choose a method.

Important
Be sure to use the correct flash image for your board; read the wiki pages and the build manifest readme file for more info.

When the flash process is complete, you must complete the following steps for either vendor or mainline u-boot in order to get things booting again. The vendor upgrade images do not restore mmc or sata boot configs, and mainline u-boot has a minor bug in the default distro boot environment.

When the bubt command completes, reset the board, and then stop the autoboot process to get a u-boot prompt again. Run the following command and then hit a key to stop the boot:

Marvell>>reset
resetting ...

When back at the u-boot prompt, load the default environment and print it.

=>env default -a
## Resetting to default environment
=>printenv

The output from the printenv command will depend on the choice of u-boots; see the Boot from SATA section below for the vendor output.

Post-flash Configuration

A correct u-boot environment is required; choose one of the following.

Vendor u-boot

If not using mainline u-boot, the correct values must be defined for mmcroot, etc, and then saved using saveenv.

For vendor u-boot, compare the output of printenv with the vendor environment variables in the Boot from SATA section, then restore any missing ones or define what you need for root partitions, etc. There is not really any set standard, just make sure the result fulfills the basic reqs, ie the result should be able to execute the following to boot from the sdcard device:

setenv console console=ttyMV0,115200 earlycon=ar3700_uart,0xd0012000
setenv bootargs $console root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 rw rootwait net.ifnames=0 biosdevname=0
mmc dev 0
ext4load mmc 0:1 $kernel_addr $image_name
ext4load mmc 0:1 $fdt_addr $fdt_name
booti $kernel_addr - $fdt_addr
 
Important
Be sure to use the existing address vars, do not invent your own.

For the initrd case, add one more ext4load command to the above; then replace the "-" with $ramdisk_addr_r in the last line. After defining the name of the initrd file, the initrd load command should look something like this:

ext4load mmc 0:1 $ramdisk_addr_r $initrd_name
 

Mainline u-boot

And now for something completely different... mainline u-boot. After flashing mainline u-boot, the printenv output should look like the following:

=>printenv
 
boot_a_script=load ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart} ${scriptaddr} ${prefix}${script}; source ${scriptaddr}
boot_efi_binary=load ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart} ${kernel_addr_r} efi/boot/bootaa64.efi; if fdt addr ${fdt_addr_r}; then bootefi ${kernel_addr_r} ${fdt_addr_r};else bootefi ${kernel_addr_r} ${fdtcontroladdr};fi
boot_efi_bootmgr=if fdt addr ${fdt_addr_r}; then bootefi bootmgr ${fdt_addr_r};else bootefi bootmgr;fi
boot_extlinux=sysboot ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart} any ${scriptaddr} ${prefix}${boot_syslinux_conf}
boot_net_usb_start=usb start
boot_pci_enum=pci enum
boot_prefixes=/ /boot/
boot_script_dhcp=boot.scr.uimg
boot_scripts=boot.scr.uimg boot.scr
boot_syslinux_conf=extlinux/extlinux.conf
boot_targets=mmc1 mmc0 usb0 scsi0 pxe dhcp
bootcmd=run distro_bootcmd
bootcmd_dhcp=setenv devtype dhcp; run boot_net_usb_start; run boot_pci_enum; if dhcp ${scriptaddr} ${boot_script_dhcp}; then source ${scriptaddr}; fi;setenv efi_fdtfile ${fdtfile}; setenv efi_old_vci ${bootp_vci};setenv efi_old_arch ${bootp_arch};setenv bootp_vci PXEClient:Arch:00011:UNDI:003000;setenv bootp_arch 0xb;if dhcp ${kernel_addr_r}; then tftpboot ${fdt_addr_r} dtb/${efi_fdtfile};if fdt addr ${fdt_addr_r}; then bootefi ${kernel_addr_r} ${fdt_addr_r}; else bootefi ${kernel_addr_r} ${fdtcontroladdr};fi;fi;setenv bootp_vci ${efi_old_vci};setenv bootp_arch ${efi_old_arch};setenv efi_fdtfile;setenv efi_old_arch;setenv efi_old_vci;
bootcmd_mmc0=devnum=0; run mmc_boot
bootcmd_mmc1=devnum=1; run mmc_boot
bootcmd_pxe=run boot_net_usb_start; run boot_pci_enum; dhcp; if pxe get; then pxe boot; fi
bootcmd_scsi0=devnum=0; run scsi_boot
bootcmd_usb0=devnum=0; run usb_boot
distro_bootcmd=scsi_need_init=; setenv nvme_need_init; for target in ${boot_targets}; do run bootcmd_${target}; done
efi_dtb_prefixes=/ /dtb/ /dtb/current/
eth1addr=00:51:82:11:22:01
eth2addr=00:51:82:11:22:02
eth3addr=00:51:82:11:22:03
ethaddr=F0:AD:4E:06:7B:9D
fdt_addr=0x6f00000
fdt_addr_r=0x6f00000
kernel_addr=0x7000000
kernel_addr_r=0x7000000
load_efi_dtb=load ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart} ${fdt_addr_r} ${prefix}${efi_fdtfile}
mmc_boot=if mmc dev ${devnum}; then devtype=mmc; run scan_dev_for_boot_part; fi
nvme_boot=run boot_pci_enum; run nvme_init; if nvme dev ${devnum}; then devtype=nvme; run scan_dev_for_boot_part; fi
nvme_init=if ${nvme_need_init}; then setenv nvme_need_init false; nvme scan; fi
pxefile_addr_r=0x6e00000
ramdisk_addr_r=0xa000000
scan_dev_for_boot=echo Scanning ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart}...; for prefix in ${boot_prefixes}; do run scan_dev_for_extlinux; run scan_dev_for_scripts; done;run scan_dev_for_efi;
scan_dev_for_boot_part=part list ${devtype} ${devnum} -bootable devplist; env exists devplist || setenv devplist 1; for distro_bootpart in ${devplist}; do if fstype ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart} bootfstype; then run scan_dev_for_boot; fi; done; setenv devplist
scan_dev_for_efi=setenv efi_fdtfile ${fdtfile}; for prefix in ${efi_dtb_prefixes}; do if test -e ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart} ${prefix}${efi_fdtfile}; then run load_efi_dtb; fi;done;run boot_efi_bootmgr;if test -e ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart} efi/boot/bootaa64.efi; then echo Found EFI removable media binary efi/boot/bootaa64.efi; run boot_efi_binary; echo EFI LOAD FAILED: continuing...; fi; setenv efi_fdtfile
scan_dev_for_extlinux=if test -e ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart} ${prefix}${boot_syslinux_conf}; then echo Found ${prefix}${boot_syslinux_conf}; run boot_extlinux; echo SCRIPT FAILED: continuing...; fi
scan_dev_for_scripts=for script in ${boot_scripts}; do if test -e ${devtype} ${devnum}:${distro_bootpart} ${prefix}${script}; then echo Found U-Boot script ${prefix}${script}; run boot_a_script; echo SCRIPT FAILED: continuing...; fi; done
scsi_boot=run scsi_init; if scsi dev ${devnum}; then devtype=scsi; run scan_dev_for_boot_part; fi
scsi_init=if ${scsi_need_init}; then scsi_need_init=false; scsi scan; fi
soc=mvebu
usb_boot=usb start; if usb dev ${devnum}; then devtype=usb; run scan_dev_for_boot_part; fi
vendor=Marvell

Environment size: 4113/65532 bytes

If the scriptaddr variable is not defined in the above output, then it will need to be set and saved manually. Note this variable is defined correctly in the header file, but somehow gets dropped from the default env (and is one of the required distro vars).

Run the following two commands to correct the default env:

=>setenv scriptaddr 0x6d00000
=>saveenv
 
Saving Environment to SPIFlash... SF: Detected w25q32dw with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 4 KiB, total 4 MiB
Erasing SPI flash...Writing to SPI flash...done
OK

Create extlinux.conf

The basic requirement for the distro_bootcmd to run is the extlinux.conf file; a basic example would look something like the following:

FILE extlinux.conf
LABEL Gentoo arm64 espressobin
        KERNEL ../vmlinuz-5.10.14-aarch64-x0
        APPEND console=ttyMV0,115200 earlycon=ar3700_uart,0xd0012000 root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 rw rootfstype=ext4 rootwait net.ifnames=0 biosdevname=0
        FDT ../dtbs/5.10.14-aarch64-x0/marvell/armada-3720-espressobin.dtb

Create a file similar to the above under /boot/extlinux. Be sure to use tabs for indenting:

user $cd /mnt/gentoo/boot
user $sudo mkdir extlinux
user $sudo nano extlinux/extlinux.conf
user $cd -

Marvell ESPRESSOBin Peripherals

Now that the base operating system is in place, you will need to do some file configuration by hand to get the peripherals working.

Serial Port Configuration

The Gentoo Stage3 comes with the default Gentoo serial port configuration, however, you need to make sure the default serial ports are commented out, and set the board-specific serial port.

Open up /etc/inittab -

root # nano -w /etc/inittab

Make sure the ttyS serial port lines are commented, then find this line at the bottom and set the speed and tty port device -

FILE /etc/inittab
T0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty 115200 ttyMV0 vt100

Save and exit the file. This ensures Gentoo will launch a login getty on the correct serial interface.

Network Setup

It seems like all network switch setups are unique, but there is an effort to converge using the Distributed Switch Architecture (DSA). The ESPRESSOBin has two LAN ports and one WAN port, which apparently need a virtual "eth0" to be configured correctly. This means eth0 must be "up" (but not configured) before the actual network devices are usable. Unless you make udev naming rules, the default interfaces are lan0, lan1, and wan. Upstream docs name the left-most port as "lan1" which is where you want to plug in for local use.

user $ifconfig -a
bond0: flags=5122<BROADCAST,MASTER,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether a6:e9:9a:6c:17:e1  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

dummy0: flags=130<BROADCAST,NOARP>  mtu 1500
        ether d6:73:f5:c7:65:2c  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet6 fe80::f2ad:4eff:fe03:861b  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether f0:ad:4e:03:86:1b  txqueuelen 532  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 203950  bytes 145809090 (139.0 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 145454  bytes 42938767 (40.9 MiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device interrupt 8  

lan0: flags=4098<BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether f0:ad:4e:03:86:1b  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lan1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.10.29  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.10.255
        inet6 fe80::f2ad:4eff:fe03:861b  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether f0:ad:4e:03:86:1b  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 203950  bytes 141322190 (134.7 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 15488  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 145480  bytes 41953390 (40.0 MiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10<host>
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 41  bytes 2720 (2.6 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 41  bytes 2720 (2.6 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

wan: flags=4098<BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether f0:ad:4e:03:86:1b  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

The corresponding Gentoo network config needs all of these enabled, however, only lan1 is needed for initial setup. Here is the initial config for one network interface:

FILE /etc/conf.d/net
# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
# scripts in /etc/init.d.  To create a more complete configuration,
# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc*/net.example* and save your configuration
# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).

dns_domain_lo="your.domain"

config_eth0=null

config_lan1="192.168.10.29 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.10.255"
routes_lan1="default via 192.168.10.1"

dns_domain_lan1="your.domain"
dns_servers_lan1="8.8.8.8"

rc_net_lan1_need="net.eth0"

# The network scripts are now part of net-misc/netifrc
# In order to avoid sys-apps/openrc-0.12 from removing
# this file, this comment was
# added; you can safely remove this comment.  Please see
# /usr/share/doc/netifrc*/README* for more information.
Important
Remember to start both eth0 and lan1.

Root Password

Important
You need this to be able to log in at all

There are several ways to generate a password hash for /etc/shadow; usually it suffices to copy the hash from another system.

All stage3 root filesystems should use an /etc/shadow root entry

root:x::0:99999:7:::

Instead of copying the hash, you can also use openssl to generate a fresh one:

  • edit /mnt/gentoo/etc/shadow so root can login:
    root #openssl passwd -1
grab hash output, edit /mnt/gentoo/etc/shadow, and put here:
FILE /mnt/gentoo/etc/shadow
root:<hash_output>:10770:0:::::

The password can always be changed once you are logged in.

/etc/fstab

On this board, the microSD card will be /dev/mmcblk0 with one partition, /dev/mmcblk0p1

Edit /mnt/gentoo/etc/fstab to match.

root #nano -w /mnt/gentoo/etc/fstab
FILE /mnt/gentoo/etc/fstab
/swapfile               none            swap            sw              0 0
/dev/mmcblk0p1          /               ext4            noatime         0 1

Boot the Board to Test

Unmount the microSD card.

root #umount /mnt/gentoo/

When the prompt returns, move the microSD card to the board, plug in micro-usb and power cables and open a console using your favorite tool, then plug in the AC side and power it up.

Log in at the serial console as root. Nothing was added to any runlevels during the install, so networking was not started, nor anything that depends on networking, like ntpd and sshd.

Many embedded boards do not have a hardware real time clock. The time will probably be Jan 1, 1970; note you can use busybox-ntpd to set the clock after the network is up.

What Next

As always with Gentoo, if it booted, that's the hard bit done.

  1. All The setup steps in the Gentoo Handbook
  2. Fix the MAC address or use a static IP
  3. Allow root logins via ssh
  4. Add a crond, a logger and other things the handbook does before the reboot.
  5. Add Kernel Sources (or at least the .config)

Random Hints

Boot from SATA

Important
The following applies to the Marvell vendor u-boot only. See above for flashing and configuring mainline u-boot.

Yes, it's actually fairly easy to boot directly from an SSD connected to the SATA controller without using the micro-SDCard at all. For this to work, setup the SSD the same way as the card (hint: you can just rsync everything on the card to your SSD). Then make the u-boot changes shown below.

The default u-boot environment has several variables set for NFS and MMC card, but the key one is "bootcmd" which defaults to the card slot (note it may point "root" to the first or second partition depending on the vendor configuration. Googling will bring up the vendor page with how to boot a bricked device from SATA and restore the u-boot in SPI flash; ignore that (unless your board is really bricked).

So, switching jumpers simply to boot from the SATA device is not needed, just two modified u-boot environment variables will do it. To make this change, just pop out the SDCard and connect a serial console as above, then power it up and hit a key to stop autoboot to get a u-boot prompt.

Booting Trusted Firmware
BL1: v1.2(release):armada-17.02.0:
BL1: Built : 09:41:56, Jun  2 2NOTICE:  BL2: v1.2(release):armada-17.02.0:
NOTICE:  BL2: Built : 09:41:57, Jun  2 20NOTICE:  BL31: v1.2(release):armada-17.02.0:
NOTICE:  BL31:

U-Boot 2015.01-armada-17.02.0-g8128e91 (Jun 02 2017 - 09:41:51)

I2C:   ready
DRAM:  1 GiB
Board: DB-88F3720-ESPRESSOBin
       CPU    @ 1000 [MHz]
       L2     @ 800 [MHz]
       TClock @ 200 [MHz]
       DDR    @ 800 [MHz]
Comphy-0: PEX0          2.5 Gbps  
Comphy-1: USB3          5 Gbps    
Comphy-2: SATA0         5 Gbps    
Now running in RAM - U-Boot at: 3ff2b000
U-Boot DT blob at : 000000003fa18168
MMC:   XENON-SDHCI: 0
SF: Detected W25Q32DW with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 4 KiB, total 4 MiB
PCIE-0: Link down
SCSI:  Target spinup took 0 ms.
AHCI 0001.0300 32 slots 1 ports 6 Gbps 0x1 impl SATA mode
flags: ncq led only pmp fbss pio slum part sxs 
Net:   neta0
Hit any key to stop autoboot:  3  0
Marvell>>

Once you see the prompt above you can try some commands like "printenv" and "help". For example:

Marvell>>printenv
 
baudrate=115200
bootargs=console=ttyMV0,115200 earlycon=ar3700_uart,0xd0012000 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rw ip=0.0.0.0:0.0.0.0:10.4.50.254:255.255.255.0:marvell:eth0:none nfsroot=0.0.0.0:/srv/nfs/
bootcmd=mmc dev 0; ext4load mmc 0:1 $kernel_addr $image_name;ext4load mmc 0:1 $fdt_addr $fdt_name;setenv bootargs $console root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 rw rootwait net.ifnames=0 biosdevname=0; booti $kernel_addr - $fdt_addr
bootdelay=3
console=console=ttyMV0,115200 earlycon=ar3700_uart,0xd0012000
eth1addr=00:00:00:00:51:82
eth2addr=00:00:00:00:51:83
ethact=neta0
ethaddr=F0:AD:4E:03:86:1B
ethprime=egiga0
fdt_addr=0x1000000
fdt_high=0xffffffffffffffff
fdt_name=boot/armada-3720-community.dtb
gatewayip=10.4.50.254
get_images=mmc dev 0; fatload mmc 0 $kernel_addr $image_name; fatload mmc 0 $fdt_addr $fdt_name; run get_ramfs
get_ramfs=if test "${ramfs_name}" != "-"; then setenv ramfs_addr 0x3000000; tftp $ramfs_addr $ramfs_name; else setenv ramfs_addr -;fi
hostname=marvell
image_name=boot/Image
initrd_addr=0xa00000
initrd_size=0x2000000
ipaddr=0.0.0.0
kernel_addr=0x2000000
loadaddr=0x2000000
loads_echo=0
netdev=eth0
netmask=255.255.255.0
ramfs_addr=-
ramfs_name=-
root=root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rw
rootpath=/srv/nfs/
serverip=0.0.0.0
set_bootargs=setenv bootargs $console $root ip=$ipaddr:$serverip:$gatewayip:$netmask:$hostname:$netdev:none nfsroot=$serverip:$rootpath $extra_params
stderr=serial
stdin=serial
stdout=serial

Environment size: 1480/65532 bytes

The variables we need to modify to switch defaults from SDCard partition 1 to SATA partition 1 are "bootargs" and "bootcmd". To change them, we need to run "setenv FOO" for each one, but that will only change them temporarily (suitable for testing). To save the changes to flash, we'll need to run the saveenv" command once we're happy with the changes.

Warning
The following changes work for me, but as always, YMMV. Test them first, save them after you verify they work for you.

Change the required variables:

Marvell>>setenv bootargs "$console root=/dev/sda1 rw rootwait net.ifnames=0 biosdevname=0"
Marvell>>setenv bootcmd "scsi scan; scsi dev 0; ext4load scsi 0 $kernel_addr $image_name; ext4load scsi 0:1 $fdt_addr $fdt_name; booti $kernel_addr - $fdt_addr"

Test the changes

Marvell>>run bootcmd
Setting SCSI to 0
Target spinup took 0 ms.
AHCI 0001.0300 32 slots 1 ports 6 Gbps 0x1 impl SATA mode
flags: ncq led only pmp fbss pio slum part sxs 
scanning bus 0 for devices...
  Device 0: (0:0) Vendor: ATA Prod.: C400-MTFDDAK128M Rev: 040H
            Type: Hard Disk
            Capacity: 122104.3 MB = 119.2 GB (250069680 x 512)
Invalid port number 2
Invalid port number 3
Invalid port number 4
Invalid port number 5
Invalid port number 6
Invalid port number 7
Found 1 device(s).

SCSI device 0: 
    Device 0: (0:0) Vendor: ATA Prod.: C400-MTFDDAK128M Rev: 040H
            Type: Hard Disk
            Capacity: 122104.3 MB = 119.2 GB (250069680 x 512)
... is now current device
14895616 bytes read in 709 ms (20 MiB/s)
7466 bytes read in 50 ms (145.5 KiB/s)
## Flattened Device Tree blob at 01000000
   Booting using the fdt blob at 0x1000000
   Using Device Tree in place at 0000000001000000, end 0000000001004d29

Starting kernel ...


If it works, great! If not, check the console output for errors, look for typos, etc. Once you've verified the changes do what you want, save them:

Marvell>>saveenv

WiFi and Bluetooth

Options are mainly PCIe or USB, so take your pick and report back.

CFLAGS

This works quite well, except for the packages where it doesn't work...

FILE make.conf
LINK_OPTS="-flto=2"
VEC_OPTS="-ftree-vectorize -ftree-loop-distribution -fvect-cost-model=cheap"
BASE_TUNE_OPTS="-march=armv8-a -mcpu=cortex-a53+simd"
TUNE_OPTS="-march=armv8-a+crc+fp+simd -mabi=lp64 -mcpu=cortex-a53+crc+fp+simd"

#CFLAGS="${BASE_TUNE_OPTS} -O2 -pipe"
CFLAGS="${TUNE_OPTS} -O2 -pipe ${VEC_OPTS} ${LINK_OPTS}"
CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
LDFLAGS="${CFLAGS} -fuse-linker-plugin"

CPU_FLAGS_ARM="edsp neon thumb vfp vfpv3 vfpv4 vfp-d32 aes sha1 sha2 crc32 v4 v5 v6 v7 v8 thumb2"

Note gcc-6.x allows the use of -march=native but that will prevent the use of distcc. The above is the same as gcc-6.3 would set for -march=native anyway.

ACCEPT_KEYWORDS

Outside of the @system set, arm64 is either testing or keyword masked. Set

FILE make.conf
ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~arm64"

and expect to use package.accept_keywords too.

Warning
The stage 3 tarball has been built with gcc-4.9 was gcc-5.4 is in testing ...

Upgrade gcc then rebuild all of the installed C++ software.

Important
News item 2015-10-22 GCC 5 Defaults to the New C++11 ABI

MAKEOPTS

With only 1G RAM, and two cores, the conventional

FILE make.conf
MAKEOPTS="-j3"

could be a bit aggressive for building larger things. It will force swapping or even appear to lock up completely, to the point where it won't even respond to the console. Unlike many other boards that may segfault under heavy load, this board will try to swap everything out (and hasn't locked up yet).

Use files in /etc/portage/env/ and entries in /etc/portage/package.env to set MAKEOPTS on a per package basis.

Networking

The basic config given above works fine for "typical" building and testing; if you want to make a firewall/gateway/router, that's beyond the scope of this HowTo.

sshd

The default configuration for sshd will not allow password based root logins.

add your ssh public key for root
make a normal user in the wheel group
edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config to allow password based root logins
Important

Updating The Tool Chain

Once you boot, you may have the desire to update @world first thing. However, as of the time of this writing, the latest stage3 for arm64 was built in December 2016. A lot of things in the tool chain will be out of date with what is on the current Portage tree. Once you've booted the board and confirmed that you have an internet connection, you'll want to first run emerge --sync to get the absolute latest tree, then run perl-cleaner --all to get all of your Perl packages up to date.

root # emerge --sync
root # perl-cleaner --all
root # emerge -auDN @world

Useful Packages

Network Time Sync

This board does not have a hardware real time clock on board. There are vendors online where you can order RTC modules made for the standard interfaces, but if you don't plan to run one, I highly recommend installing a NTP client.

First, set the initial time using the 'date' command. Date and time will be entered in mmddhhmmyyyy format and the time is in 24-hr format -

root #date mmddhhmmyyyy

As an example, if the time is 10:05PM on 7/31/2017 -

root # date 073122052017

As with most things Gentoo, the NTP daemon is just an emerge away -

root #emerge --ask net-misc/ntp

Remove the hardware clock service hwclock from the boot runlevel and replace it with the software clock service swclock -

root # rc-update del hwclock boot
root # rc-update add swclock boot

Make sure you have the correct time zone set to the area which most closely matches your locale in /usr/share/zoneinfo -

root # ls /usr/share/zoneinfo
root # echo "<YOUR_TIME_ZONE>" > /etc/timezone

As an example, if you live in California, you would do -

root # echo "America/Los_Angeles" > /etc/timezone

Install your timezone libraries -

root #emerge --ask sys-libs/timezone-data

Start the NTP client and add it to the default runlevel -

root # rc-service ntp-client start
root # rc-update add ntp-client default

Where to Get Help

On Internet Relay Chat #gentoo-arm (webchat) #gentoo-embedded (webchat)

On the Gentoo Forums, start a new topic in the Gentoo on ARM forum.

References

Acknowledgements

Everyone contributing to the arm64 software base.

Especially everyone...