Chromium

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This page is a translated version of the page Chromium and the translation is 68% complete.
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Chromium は Google の Chrome Web ブラウザのオープンソース版です。最小限のユーザーインターフェースと、強力な Web 開発ツールと、組み込みのタスクマネージャを特徴としています。Chromium プロジェクトは新しい Web 標準を実装する最前線です。

Chromium はオープンソースなので、プロプライエタリな Google Chrome ブラウザにデフォルトで含まれるいくつかの機能は、法律上の理由で含めることができません。例えば、自動アップデートや、Adobe の Flash Player の統合などです。差分の完全な一覧は chromium リポジトリで確認できます。

インストール

USE フラグ

USE flags for www-client/chromium Open-source version of Google Chrome web browser

component-build Split build into more shared libraries to speed up linking. Mostly intended for debugging and development, NOT RECOMMENDED for general use.
cups Add support for CUPS (Common Unix Printing System)
custom-cflags Build with user-specified CFLAGS (unsupported)
debug Enable DCHECK feature with severity configurable at runtime. Mostly intended for debugging and development, NOT RECOMMENDED for general use.
hangouts Enable support for Google Hangouts features such as screen sharing
headless Build Ozone only with headless backend, NOT RECOMMENDED for general use.
js-type-check Enable JavaScript type-checking for Chrome's web technology-based UI. Requires Java.
kerberos Add kerberos support
official Enable Official build instead of Developer build.
pic Disable optimized assembly code that is not PIC friendly
proprietary-codecs Enable codecs for patent-encumbered audio and video formats.
pulseaudio Add support for PulseAudio sound server
screencast Enable support for remote desktop and screen cast using media-video/pipewire
selinux !!internal use only!! Security Enhanced Linux support, this must be set by the selinux profile or breakage will occur
suid Build the SUID sandbox, which is only needed on CONFIG_USER_NS=n kernels
system-ffmpeg Use system ffmpeg instead of the bundled one
system-harfbuzz Use system harfbuzz instead of the bundled one.
system-icu Use system icu instead of the bundled one
vaapi Enable Video Acceleration API for hardware decoding
wayland Enable dev-libs/wayland backend
widevine Unsupported closed-source DRM capability (required by Netflix VOD)

icu

Important
To avoid an emerge slot conflict with dev-libs/libxml2, which prevents Chromium to be emerged, icu USE flag must be set in /etc/portage/make.conf. If icu is newly set, update the system before emerging Chromium by issuing:

root #emerge --ask --update --deep --newuse @world

l10n (言語)

Chromium には USE_EXPAND を通して多くの言語を利用することができます。多すぎて wiki ではすべてを表示できません。すべての言語を一覧表示するには、次を実行してください:

user $equery u www-client/chromium | grep l10n
Note
equery ツールは app-portage/gentoolkit パッケージに含まれます。上のコマンドを使用するには、このパッケージがインストールされている必要があります。

ローカライゼーションに関するさらなる情報については、ローカライゼーションの記事を読んでください。

Emerge

Tip
Chromium のコンパイルには、かなりの実時間と CPU 時間とシステムメモリを占有することに注意してください。make の各スレッドに対して 2Gb の RAM が割り当てられるようにしてください(MAKEOPTS を適切に設定することによって。こちらの投稿も参考にしてください)。システムに負荷がかかっている状態で Chromium をビルドするのは、おそらく止めておいたほうがよいでしょう。

USE フラグを望み通り設定したら、次のコマンドで Chromium を emerge してください:

root #emerge --ask www-client/chromium

設定

高 DPI

Chromium's visual output is generally disconnected from a Desktop environment's DPI scaling. It can be instructed to start in a scaled mode by using the --force-device-scale-factor command-line option. This option can be passed a integer or decimal value. Standard scaling begins at 1.0. For example, to make Chromium's UI 1.5x larger:

user $chromium --force-device-scale-factor=1.5

A full list of command-line switches can be found here.

ネイティブ Wayland サポート

Since version 87, native Wayland support in Chromium can be enabled by passing the following options:

user $chromium --enable-features=UseOzonePlatform --ozone-platform=wayland

To set Chromium to start every time using the Wayland backend, append the following lines the user's Chromium configuration file:

FILE ~/.config/chromium-flags.conf
--enable-features=UseOzonePlatform
--ozone-platform=wayland

Disable Tab Hover Cards

Since version 91.0.4472.77 it is no longer possible to disable the Tab Hover Cards within Chrome flags. There seems to be no priority at Google to add this feature back in. In order to disable them, you can add this patch to Portage:

FILE /etc/portage/patches/www-client/chromium/hover-card.patch
diff --git a/chrome/browser/ui/views/tabs/tab_strip.cc b/chrome/browser/ui/views/tabs/tab_strip.cc
index 59e2d1e1fc..d94947109c 100644
--- a/chrome/browser/ui/views/tabs/tab_strip.cc
+++ b/chrome/browser/ui/views/tabs/tab_strip.cc
@@ -2119,6 +2119,7 @@ void TabStrip::OnMouseEventInTab(views::View* source,
 }
 
 void TabStrip::UpdateHoverCard(Tab* tab, HoverCardUpdateType update_type) {
+  return;
   // We don't want to show a hover card while the tabstrip is animating.
   if (bounds_animator_.IsAnimating()) {
     // Once we're animating the hover card should already be hidden.

See also Added setting for Tab Hover Cards.

使い方

Chrome URL

Much like Firefox, Chromium has many internal Chrome URLs (special pages) that are used for additional configuration, troubleshooting, task management, etc. An exhaustive list of special pages can be accessed by navigating to: chrome://about/

Prominent special pages include:

  • chrome://components/ - Shows enabled components and provides a button to check for updates for each of them. It is sometimes necessary to manually update the PPAPI Adobe flash module via this interfaces when using Chrome.
  • chrome://chrome/ - Displays the About page which includes version information.
  • chrome://extensions/ - A page to manage extensions.
  • chrome://flags/ - Enable/disable experimental features.
  • chrome://flash/ - Displays special information about the Adobe Flash Player (if it is accessible by Chromium).
  • chrome://gpu/ - Displays information about use of graphics acceleration.
  • chrome://history/ - Displays web history. Also accessible through the sandwich menu or by pressing Ctrl+h.
  • chrome://memory-redirect/ - Measure the memory usage of the browser and per-tab usage.
  • chrome://net-internals/ - Lots of information on network connections.
  • chrome://plugins/ - Shows a list of plugins. Enable/disable them from this interface. (Deprecated in Chrome version 57[1].)
  • chrome://version/ - Displays more version information than the chrome page.

トラブルシューティング

タブがクラッシュする

Occasionally tabs in Chromium crash. This can be caused by quite a few things, however one of the most common reason for occurrence is that the system is running low on memory. On Gentoo, this can especially happen if the system is compiling a www-client/chromium package update while running Chromium.

The free command can be used to see how much memory is available on the system:

user $free -h
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:            15G         11G        735M        789M        3.4G        3.1G

The solution to is to free up memory until the large package compiles have finished. Open a resource monitor of choice and kill applications using large amounts of memory.

参考

  • Firefox — Mozilla's web browser.
  • Chrome — Google's proprietary (closed source) web browser.

参照