Partitioning the storage device with parted
To partition storage devices the partitioning utility parted can be used, which was one of the first to support GPT partitions on Linux.
In this chapter, the example partition layout mentioned earlier in the instructions will be used to partition the storage device that is going to house the new Gentoo installation:
|/dev/mmcblk0p3||Boot/EFI system partition|
Change the partition layout according to personal preference.
Viewing the current partition layout with parted
The parted application offers a simple interface for partitioning storage media like disks and supports very large partitions (more than 2 TB). Fire up parted against the storage device of choice (in the example /dev/mmcblk0 is used). It is recommended to ask parted to use optimal partition alignment:
parted -a optimal /dev/mmcblk0
GNU Parted 2.3 Using /dev/mmcblk0 Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
Alignment means that partitions are started on well-known boundaries within the storage device, ensuring that operations on the storage device from the operating system level (retrieve pages from the device) use the least amount of internal device operations. Misaligned partitions might require the device to fetch two pages instead of one even if the operating system asked for a single page.
To find out about all options supported by parted, type help and press return.
Setting the GPT label
With parted, the command to put a GPT label on the storage device is mklabel gpt:
Changing the partition type will remove all partitions from the storage device. All data on the device will be lost.
Removing all partitions with parted
If this isn't done yet (for instance through the mklabel operation earlier, or because the storage device is a freshly formatted one), first remove all existing partitions from the device. Type print to view the current partitions, and rm <N> where
<N> is the number of the partition to remove.
Do the same for all other partitions that aren't needed. However, make sure to not make any mistakes here - parted executes the changes immediately (unlike the traditional fdisk which stages them, allowing a user to "undo" his changes before saving or exiting fdisk).
Creating the partitions
Now parted will be used to create the partitions with the following settings:
- The name of a partition
- The start location of a partition (which can be expressed in MiB, GiB, ...)
- The end location of the partition (which can be expressed in MiB, GiB, ...)
First, tell parted that the size unit we work with is kibibytes (abbreviated as KiB in the "standard" notation):
Then create a 4096 KiB partition (called "firmware" according to the example partition layout) that can be used for software taking care of initializing the target system's hardware, and inform parted to start from 32 KiB and end at 4128 KiB (creating a partition of 4096 KiB in size).
mkpart firmware 32 4128
Model: Virtio Block Device (virtblk) Disk /dev/mmcblk0: 20480MiB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Number Start End Size File system Name Flags 1 32KiB 4128KiB 4096KiB firmware
TODO: instructions how to deal with alignment warning
Do the same for the bootloader partition (starting at 8192KiB, size 4096KiB).
mkpart bootloader 8192 12288
After these two rather small partitions are created, it is time to create the bigger ones. To make things easier, change the size unit for parted to work with to mebibytes (abbreviated as MiB).
Now create a 128 MiB partition that will serve as the boot partition. Tell parted with the mkpart command to start from 16 MiB and end at 144 MiB (creating a partition of 128 MiB in size). Then turn on the boot flag for the newly created third partition.
TODO: disk model? TODO: 16MiB or 16.0MiB?
mkpart boot 16 144
set 3 boot on
Last, create the main partition that spans the remaining space on the storage device (for which the end location is marked as -1, meaning the end of the disk minus one MiB, which is the farthest a partition can go).
mkpart main 136 -1
The end result looks like so:
TODO: 12/16MiB or 12.0/16.0?
Model: Virtio Block Device (virtblk) Disk /dev/sda: 20480MiB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Number Start End Size File system Name Flags 1 0.03MiB 4.03MiB 4.00MiB firmware 2 8.00MiB 12MiB 4.00MiB bootloader 3 16MiB 144MiB 128MiB boot boot 4 144MiB 20479MiB 20335MiB main
On an UEFI installation, the boot and the esp flag should show up on the boot partition.
Use the quit command to exit parted.
With the partitions created, it is now time to put filesystems on them. Optionally, the storage device can be encrypted before.