Frr

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This article has some todo items:
  • add systemd configuration steps

FRR is a set of unified tools to configure and manage dynamic routing protocols. It was created as a fork from the Quagga Project.

The FRRouting software consists of 2 basic parts:

  • The zebra daemon
  • The routing process deamons: ripd,ospfd etc.

The zebra daemon is a abstraction layer between the kernel and the running routing processes. zebra acts as a relay. Each routing protocol such as as BFD, BGP, Babel, OpenFabric, LDP, EIGRP, ISIS, NHRP, OSPFv2, OSPFv3, Segment Routing, PIM, PBR, RIP, RIPng, STATIC and VRRP runs its own separate running daemon.

FRRouting can install, add, change and remove kernel IP routing information. All routing daemons communicate directly to zebra daemon. The zebra daemon then, alters the linux IP networking information on the host. iproute2 and nettools alter directly the linux IP networking.

Control Plane bgpd ospfd ospf6d ripngd isisd pimd ldpd babeld bfdd fabricd pathd (...) iproute2 net-tools ethtool other tool
zebra
Data Plane Linux kernel IP networking
Hardware eth0 wlan0 lo other interface

Installation

USE flags

USE flags for net-misc/frr The FRRouting Protocol Suite

doc Add extra documentation (API, Javadoc, etc). It is recommended to enable per package instead of globally
fpm Enable Forwarding Plane Manager support
grpc Enable gRPC plugin
ipv6 Add support for IP version 6
nhrp Build Next Hop Resolution Protocol daemon
ospfapi Build OSPFAPI support
pam Add support for PAM (via sys-libs/pam) to the Virtual Terminal Interface Shell (vtysh)
rpki Enable RPKI
snmp Add support for the Simple Network Management Protocol if available
test Enable dependencies and/or preparations necessary to run tests (usually controlled by FEATURES=test but can be toggled independently)

Emerge

root #emerge --ask net-misc/frr

Configuration

Review frr's configuration /etc/frr/daemons file to enable additional routing protocols. In the default setting all routing protocols are disabled.

  • /etc/frr/daemons - Global (system wide) FRR configuration file.
FILE /etc/frr/daemons
 
...
bgpd=no
ospfd=no
ospf6d=no
ripd=no
ripngd=no
isisd=no
pimd=no
ldpd=no
nhrpd=no
eigrpd=no
babeld=no
sharpd=no
pbrd=no
bfdd=no
fabricd=no
vrrpd=no
pathd=no
...

Add larry to frrvty group to be able to use vtysh:

root #gpasswd -a larry frrvty

Add larry to the frr group:

root #gpasswd -a larry frr

OpenRC

Add frr to the default runlevel:

root #rc-update add frr default

Start frr daemon:

root #/etc/init.d/frr start

systemd

Usage

Following section describes a basic configuration example for FRR. Configuring a additional IP address 192.0.2.100/32 and the IPv6 address 2001:db8::100/128 on a loopback interface lo, then finally to test in using iproute2 tools. The goal of this usage configuration example is to show, FRR is yet another management tool for the linux kernel IP networking.

Commands overview:

Action Command
Use vtysh to configure frr
user $vtysh
Show help using the ? key.
Router#?
Show basic IP networking information
Router#show ip route
Show running configuration
Router#show run
Get into global configuration mode
Router#conf t
Change int interface configuration mode, interface loopback
Router(config)#int lo
Configure IP address on a loopback interface
Router(config-if)#ip address 192.0.2.100/32
Configure IPv6 address on a loopback interface
Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8::100/128
Show current configuration
Router#show int lo
Save frr configuration
Router#wr
Display configured IP address using iproute2
user $ip add

Initial IP network settings used during the example configuration:

Initial networking setup
Interface Settings IP IPv6
lo address 127.0.0.1 ::1
netmask /32 /128
wlan0 address 192.0.2.10 2001:db8::10
netmask /24 /64
gateway 192.0.2.1 2001:db8::1

Display configured IP settings using iproute2:

user $ip add
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 brd 127.255.255.255 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: wlan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether de:ad:be:ef:de:ad brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.0.2.10/24 brd 192.0.2.255 scope global wlan0

Display the IPv6 interface configuration using iproute2:

user $ip -6 add
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 state UNKNOWN qlen 1000
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: wlan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 state UP qlen 1000
    inet6 2001:db8::10/64 scope global
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::eac:d1ff:fe94:0/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

Show the Linux IPv4 routing table:

user $ip route
default via 192.0.2.1 dev wlan0  metric 2005
192.0.2.0/24 dev wlan0 proto kernel scope link src 192.0.2.10

Show the Linux IPv6 routing table:

user $ip -6 route
default via 2001:db8::1 dev wlan0 metric 1024 pref medium
2001:db8::/64 dev wlan0 proto kernel metric 256 pref medium
fe80::/64 dev wlan0 proto kernel metric 256 pref medium

Login

Use the vtysh command to login to the FRR command line interface:

user $vtysh

Hello, this is FRRouting (version 8.1-gentoo).
Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al.

Router# 

Show routing table

Compare output shown below to the Linux ip route, shows exactly same output. Notice the default route has a K prefix which means it is a kernel route:

Router#show ip route
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP,
       O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, E - EIGRP, N - NHRP,
       T - Table, v - VNC, V - VNC-Direct, A - Babel, F - PBR,
       f - OpenFabric,
       > - selected route, * - FIB route, q - queued, r - rejected, b - backup
       t - trapped, o - offload failure

K>* 0.0.0.0/0 [0/0] via 192.0.2.1, eth0, 00:00:09
C>* 192.0.2.0/24 is directly connected, eth0, 00:13:52

Now the same, but for the IPv6 protocol:

Router#show ipv6 route
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIPng,
       O - OSPFv3, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, N - NHRP, T - Table,
       v - VNC, V - VNC-Direct, A - Babel, F - PBR,
       f - OpenFabric,
       > - selected route, * - FIB route, q - queued, r - rejected, b - backup
       t - trapped, o - offload failure

K>* ::/0 [0/1024] via 2001:db8::1, wlan0, 00:04:44
C>* 2001:db8::/64 is directly connected, wlan0, 00:12:00
C>* fe80::/64 is directly connected, wlan0, 00:12:03

Show configuration

To display current configuration use the show running-config command:

Router#show run

Building configuration...

Current configuration:
!
frr version 8.1-gentoo
frr defaults traditional
hostname Router
service integrated-vtysh-config
!
end

Configure IP addressing

Get into edit mode:

Router#conf t
Router(config)#

Choose the lo loopback interface:

Router(config)#int lo
Router(config-if)# 

Configure the IP 192.0.2.100/32 on loopback interface, notice the IP prefix length /32:

Router(config-if)#ip address 192.0.2.100/32

Configure the IPv6 address 2001:db8::100/128 on the loopback interface, notice the /128 prefix length:

Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8::100/128

Exit configure mode

End the edit mode mode session:

Router(config-if)#end
Router#

Verify configuration

Show running configuration:

Router#show run
Current configuration:
!
frr version 8.1
frr defaults traditional
hostname Router
service integrated-vtysh-config
!
interface lo
 ip address 192.0.2.100/32
 ipv6 address 2001:db8::100/128
exit
!
end

Show the loopback interface configuration, and notice the configured inet and inet6 addresses in the output:

Router#sh int lo
Interface lo is up, line protocol is up
  Link ups:       0    last: (never)
  Link downs:     0    last: (never)
  vrf: default
  index 1 metric 0 mtu 65536 speed 0
  flags: <UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>
  Type: Loopback
  inet 192.0.2.100/32
  inet6 2001:db8::100/128
  Interface Type Other
  Interface Slave Type None
  protodown: off

Show the IPv4 routing table, notify both prefixes 192.0.2.10/24 and 192.0.2.100/32 are in the routing table:

Router#show ip route
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP,
       O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, E - EIGRP, N - NHRP,
       T - Table, v - VNC, V - VNC-Direct, A - Babel, F - PBR,
       f - OpenFabric,
       > - selected route, * - FIB route, q - queued, r - rejected, b - backup
       t - trapped, o - offload failure

C>* 192.0.2.10/24 is directly connected, wlan0, 00:05:14
C>* 192.0.2.100/24 is directly connected, lo, 00:05:14

Show the IPv6 routing table, notify both prefixes 2001:db8::/64 and 2001:db8::100/128 are in the routing table:

Router#show ipv6 route
frr# show ipv6 route
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIPng,
       O - OSPFv3, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, N - NHRP, T - Table,
       v - VNC, V - VNC-Direct, A - Babel, F - PBR,
       f - OpenFabric,
       > - selected route, * - FIB route, q - queued, r - rejected, b - backup
       t - trapped, o - offload failure

C>* 2001:db8::/64 is directly connected, wlan0, 00:24:31
C>* 2001:db8::100/128 is directly connected, lo, 00:31:28
C>* fe80::/64 is directly connected, eth0, 00:56:16

Save configuration

Save running configuration:

Router#write
Building Configuration...
Integrated configuration saved to /etc/frr/frr.conf
[OK]

Exit router

Exit FRR using the exit command:

Router#exit

Test connectivity

Verify IP configuration using iproute2. Notice the additional IP address setup on loopback interface:

user $ip add
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet 192.168.0.100/32 brd 192.168.0.100 scope global lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 2001:db8::100/128 scope global
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
1: wlan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 0c:ac:d1:94:00:00 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.0.2.10/24 brd 192.0.2.255 scope global eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 2001:db8::10/64 scope global
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::eac:d1ff:fe94:0/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

Verify IP connectivity in the network:

user $ping 192.0.2.100
PING 192.0.2.100 (192.0.2.100): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 192.0.2.100: seq=0 ttl=42 time=0.051 ms
^C
--- 192.0.2.100 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 0.051/0.051/0.051 ms

Verify IPv6 connectivity in the network:

user $ping 2001:db8::100
PING 2001:db8::100 (2001:db8::100): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2001:db8::100: seq=0 ttl=64 time=0.062 ms
^C
--- 2001:db8::100 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 0.058/0.058/0.058 ms

Remove configuration

Remove the example configuration using the using vtysh:

user $vtysh

Apply following command sequence to remove the configuration:

conf t
interface lo
 no ip address 192.0.2.100/32
 no ipv6 address 2001:db8::100/128
end
wr

Troubleshooting

Verify the zebra daemon is up and running:

root #ss -tulpn | grep zebra
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2601      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("zebra",pid=1799,fd=22))

Verify configured routing protocol daemons are up and running:

root #ss -tulpn | egrep 'Net|:26'
Netid State  Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:PortProcess
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2608      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("isisd",pid=1823,fd=11))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2609      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("babeld",pid=1826,fd=10))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2611      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("pimd",pid=1829,fd=12))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2612      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("ldpd",pid=1838,fd=17))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2616      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("staticd",pid=1842,fd=11))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2617      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("bfdd",pid=1845,fd=18))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2601      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("zebra",pid=1799,fd=22))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2602      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("ripd",pid=1811,fd=11))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2604      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("ospfd",pid=1817,fd=11))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3          127.0.0.1:2605      0.0.0.0:*    users:(("bgpd",pid=1804,fd=17))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3              [::1]:2606         [::]:*    users:(("ospf6d",pid=1820,fd=11))
tcp   LISTEN 0      3              [::1]:2603         [::]:*    users:(("ripngd",pid=1814,fd=11))

Using help

Show basic mode commands, use the ? key for help:

Router#?
  add               Add registration
  clear             Reset functions
  configure         Configuration from vty interface
  copy              Copy from one file to another
  debug             Debugging functions
  disable           Turn off privileged mode command
  enable            Turn on privileged mode command
  end               End current mode and change to enable mode
  exit              Exit current mode and down to previous mode
  find              Find CLI command matching a regular expression
  graceful-restart  Graceful Restart commands
  list              Print command list
  mtrace            Multicast trace route to multicast source
  no                Negate a command or set its defaults
  output            Direct vtysh output to file
  ping              Send echo messages
  quit              Exit current mode and down to previous mode
  rpki              Control rpki specific settings
  show              Show running system information
  terminal          Set terminal line parameters
  traceroute        Trace route to destination
  watchfrr          Watchfrr Specific sub-command
  write             Write running configuration to memory, network, or terminal

After choosing initial entry command show, continue using ? key to display further possible commands:

Router#show ?
  babel             Babel information
  bfd               Bidirection Forwarding Detection
  bgp               BGP information
  bmp               BGP Monitoring Protocol
  daemons           Show list of running daemons
  debugging         Debugging functions
  error             Information on errors
  evpn              EVPN
  fpm               Forwarding Plane Manager configuration
  history           The list of commands stored in history
  interface         Interface status and configuration
  ip                IP information
  ipv6              IPv6 information
  isis              IS-IS routing protocol
  l2vpn             Show information about Layer2 VPN
  logging           Show current logging configuration
  mac               mac access lists
  memory            Memory statistics
  modules           Loaded modules
  mpls              MPLS information
  nexthop-group     Show Nexthop Groups
  openfabric        OpenFabric routing protocol
  pathd             pathd daemon
  pbr               Policy Based Routing
  route-map         route-map
  route-map-unused  unused route-map information
  router-id         Show the configured router-id
  rpki              Control rpki specific settings
  running-config    Current operating configuration
  segment-routing   Segment Routing
  sr-te             SR-TE info
  startup-config    Contents of startup configuration
  thread            Thread information
  version           Displays zebra version
  vnc               VNC information
  vrf               VRF
  vrrp              Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
  watchfrr          watchfrr information
  work-queues       Work Queue information
  yang              YANG information
  zebra             Zebra information

Continue using the ? help key on each command level, to view possible configuration settings.

Router#show ip ?
  access-list          List IP access lists
  as-path-access-list  List AS path access lists
  bgp                  BGP information
  eigrp                IP-EIGRP show commands
  fib                  IP forwarding table
  forwarding           IP forwarding status
  igmp                 IGMP information
  import-check         IP import check tracking table
  mroute               IP multicast routing table
  msdp                 MSDP information
  multicast            Specify the VRF
  nht                  IP nexthop tracking table
  ospf                 OSPF information
  pim                  PIM information
  prefix-list          Build a prefix list
  protocol             IP protocol filtering status
  rib                  IP unicast routing table
  rip                  Show RIP routes
  route                IP routing table
  router-id            Show the configured router-id
  rpf                  Display RPF information for multicast source
  ssmpingd             ssmpingd operation

Show the routing table:

Router#show ip route

Internal help works like a tree, where using the ? key displays further levels of commands.

Routing protocol debugging

To view protocol debug output, use the log syslog debugging configuration to write the debugging output systems to /var/log/messages file:

conf t
log syslog debugging
exit

Get and overview of the debugging options:

Router#debug ?
  babel             Babel information
  bfd               Bidirection Forwarding Detection
  bgp               BGP information
  eigrp             EIGRP information
  igmp              IGMP protocol activity
  isis              IS-IS routing protocol
  memstats-at-exit  Print memory statistics at exit
  mpls              MPLS information
  mroute            PIM interaction with kernel MFC cache
  msdp              MSDP protocol activity
  mtrace            Mtrace protocol activity
  nhrp              NHRP information
  northbound        Northbound debugging
  openfabric        OpenFabric routing protocol
  ospf              OSPF information
  ospf6             Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) for IPv6
  pathd             path debugging
  pbr               Policy Based Routing
  pim               PIM protocol activity
  prefix-list       Prefix-list test access
  resolver          Debug DNS resolver actions
  rfapi-dev         RF API debugging/testing command
  rip               RIP information
  ripng             RIPng configuration
  route-map         Debug option set for route-maps
  rpki              Enable debugging for rpki
  spf-delay-ietf    SPF Back-off Debugging
  ssmpingd          ssmpingd activity
  static            Static route daemon
  unique-id         Options per individual log message, by unique ID
  vrf               VRF Debugging
  vrrp              Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
  zebra             Zebra configuration

In example below a simple debug rip events routine is shown:

Router#debug rip events

View the debug rip events debug output in the terminal send to local /var/log/messages file:

user $tail -f /var/log/messages
Apr  2 15:19:38 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [RG149-CQVW5] update timer fire!
Apr  2 15:19:38 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [V19ZJ-CH6H5] SEND UPDATE to eth0 ifindex 2
Apr  2 15:19:38 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [RDKCB-7NMQT] multicast announce on eth0
Apr  2 15:19:38 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [JEJ1H-ZE96E] update routes on interface eth0 ifindex 2
Apr  2 15:19:38 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [VEJY5-67P5X] SEND to  224.0.0.9520
Apr  2 15:20:14 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [RG149-CQVW5] update timer fire!
Apr  2 15:20:14 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [V19ZJ-CH6H5] SEND UPDATE to eth0 ifindex 2
Apr  2 15:20:14 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [RDKCB-7NMQT] multicast announce on eth0
Apr  2 15:20:14 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [JEJ1H-ZE96E] update routes on interface eth0 ifindex 2
Apr  2 15:20:14 Router daemon.debug ripd[1811]: [VEJY5-67P5X] SEND to  224.0.0.9520

Disable debugging output after finishing troubleshooting:

Router#no debug rip events

See also

  • Iproute2 — a tool developed to unify network interface configuration, routing, and tunneling for Linux systems.
  • Static routing — covers routing of the IP protocol in the Linux kernel.

External resources