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The Adapteva Parallella is a family of credit card sized single board computers. Based on the dual-core Zynq-7000 series of ARMv7-A processors, they also contain a built-in FPGA and Epiphany-III 16-core co-processor. The board is intended to democratise access to parallel programming[1], due to the price, number of cores and low power draw (5W).

The Parallella was crowdfunded via Kickstarter[2], and the schematics and design files were released as open source.


Generally available Parallella hardware comes in three forms:

  • Parallella-16 Micro Server
  • Parallella-16 Desktop Computer
  • Parallella-16 Embedded Platform

Kickstarter backers would have been able to receive a limited number of Parallella-64s with a 64-core co-processor, but these were not mass-produced and are not covered here.

Parallella-16s can be powered by 2A 5V DC barrel jack (5.5mm OD/2.1mm ID centre-positive[3]), microUSB (with jumper) or by the metal pads in the corners via the J15 header[4].

Parallella-16 Micro Server

Device Make/model Status Kernel driver(s) Kernel version Notes
CPU Dual-core Zynq-7010 Works ARCH_ZYNQ
Memory 1GB DDR3L Works
Co-processor 16-core Epiphany-III Works EPIPHANY parallella-linux
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Works ARM_AMBA Max. 1500 MTU
Storage microSDXC Works ARM_AMBA
Serial UART[5] Works

Parallella-16 Desktop Computer

Includes all hardware of the Parallella-16 Micro Server, additionally with:

Device Make/model Status Kernel driver(s) Kernel version Notes
USB microUSB OTG Works
Video microHDMI Works
GPIO 24 via Porcupine board

Parallella-16 Embedded Platform

Includes the hardware of the Parallella-16 Desktop Computers, except the CPU is upgraded to the Zynq-7020. EP devices must use FPGA firmware built for Zynq-7020 devices.

Device Make/model Status Kernel driver(s) Kernel version Notes
CPU Dual-core Zynq-7020 48 (Untested) ARCH_ZYNQ includes Bank 13 I/O pins


SD Card

The Parallella finds its firmware, bootloader, kernel and device tree necessary to boot on the SD card. In order for the board to find these files, the SD Card must be MBR/DOS partitioned, with the first partition FAT32 formatted.

root #lsblk
├─/dev/mmcblk0p1 vfat     BOOT  /boot
└─/dev/mmcblk0p2 ext4     ROOT  /
root #tree /boot
├── devicetree.dtb
├── parallella.bit.bin
└── uImage


Parallella boards load the FPGA firmware (including u-boot bootloader), kernel (uImage) and device tree (dtb) from the microSD card slot whenever power is applied to the board.

The firmware file must be named parallella.bit.bin on the FAT32 filesystem on the SD card.

This firmware is open sourced on Github parallella/oh but requires the free (as in beer) Xilinx Vivado tools to produce.


Parallella has provided 4 versions of the firmware (parallella.bit.bin) that boots Linux:

Date Elink Status Notes Source
2019.1 elink2 latest HDMI and headless Github parallella/parabuntu fpga_bitfiles
2016.11 elink2 HDMI and headless Github parallella/parabuntu commit 0cb190a
2016.3 elink2 Headless only Github parallella/parabuntu commit d36f6be
2014.11 elink1 HDMI and headless Github parallella/parallella-hw old bitstreams

Post-boot customisation

Once the operating system is running, the FPGA can be reconfigured with a compatible bitstream by use of the /dev/xdevcfg driver[6], or, in more recent kernels, the FPGA Manager[7].


The firmware parallella.bit.bin, in addition to the FPGA routines that concern board bring-in, contains u-boot to boot the system into Linux. The load address for a kernel uImage is 0x8000.

Parallella provide kernel sources with working Epiphany drivers in the parallella-linux repository. parallella-linux provides the parallella_defconfig target to generate a kernel config suitable for all Parallella boards.

user $make parallella_defconfig
user $make uImage LOADADDR=0x8000
Branch Status Based on
parallella-linux-2019.1 Works adi-linux-4.14.0
parallella-linux-2016.11 Works adi-linux-4.6.0
parallella-linux-2016.3 Works adi-linux-4.4.0

Upstream kernels can also work, however the Epiphany driver has not been upstreamed. Upstream kernels have the multi_v7_defconfig which is suitable for the Parallella.

user $make multi_v7_defconfig

Building a kernel requires the sys-devel/bc package, and building a uImage requires the dev-embedded/u-boot-tools package:

root #emerge --ask sys-devel/bc
root #emerge --ask dev-embedded/u-boot-tools

The resulting uImage can be found at arch/arm/boot/uImage. The kernel uImage must be named uImage on the FAT32 filesystem on the SD card.

Device Tree

The device tree is available in the parallella-linux sources at arch/arm/boot/dts/zynq-parallella*.dts. It can be compiled into a dtb file with make dtbs:

root #emerge --ask sys-apps/dtc
user $make dtbs

The device tree must be named devicetree.dtb on the FAT32 filesystem on the SD card.

Name Board
zynq-parallella-microserver.dtb Parallella MicroServer
zynq-parallella-headless.dtb Parallella (Desktop or Embedded) without HDMI bitstream
zynq-parallella.dtb Parallella with HDMI bitstream

Root Filesystem

The upstream device tree (zynq-parallella1.dtsi) configures the root partition as the second partition with an ext4 filesystem.

An armv7a stage3 can be unpacked and customised. Gentoo autobuilds can be found on

Epiphany SDK (esdk)

Adapteva provides the SDK to interact with the Epiphany device on Github adapteva/epiphany-sdk.

Version 2016.3 of the esdk utilises the elink2 interface with the Epiphany chip and requires an elink2 firmware.

The esdk sources build for the armv7l architecture which is not the same as the Gentoo architecture (armv7a).


A compatible cross-compiler can be generated with crossdev:

root #crossdev -S -t armv7a-unknown-linux-gnueabihf

When cross-compiling the kernel, call make with the ARCH and CROSS_COMPILE environment variables:

user $make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=armv7a-unknown-linux-gnueabihf-

When cross-compiling the Epiphany SDK, use the -c armv7a-unknown-linux-gnueabihf flag:

user $./sdk/ -d -R -c armv7a-unknown-linux-gnueabihf

External Resources