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This page is a translated version of the page NVidia/nvidia-drivers and the translation is 39% complete.

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The x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers package contains the proprietary graphics driver for NVIDIA graphic cards. An open source alternative is nouveau.

This proprietary driver contains some wrapper functions that will compile against the Linux kernel and a binary blob that does the heavy lifting for talking to the card. The driver consists of two parts: a kernel module and an X11 driver. Both parts are included in a single package. Due to the way the drivers are packaged, it is necessary to make some choices before installing the drivers.

The package contains the latest drivers from NVIDIA with support for most NVIDIA graphic cards, with several versions available depending on the age of the card. It uses an eclass to detect what kind of card the system is running so that it installs the proper version.

하드웨어 호환성

The x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers package supports a range of available NVIDIA cards. Multiple versions are available for installation, depending on the card(s) that the system has. See the official NVIDIA documentation, What's a legacy driver?, to find out what version of x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers should be used. A pretty decent way to find this out through an interactive form. Enter the graphics card that is used by the system (mind the Legacy option in the 'Product Type' field) and the form should end up with the best supported version.

가지고 있는 카드가 구형 카드임을 확인했다면 nvidia-drivers의 최근 릴리즈를 가려야 합니다. 예를 들자면:

파일 /etc/portage/package.maskMasking drivers with version higher than 174

젠투에서는 71.86.xx 버전을 제공하지 않음을 참고하십시오. 이 드라이버가 필요하다면 nouveau 드라이버를 사용하시는것이 낫습니다.



As mentioned above, the NVIDIA kernel driver installs and runs against the current kernel. It builds as a module, so the kernel must support the loading of kernel modules (see below).

The kernel module (nvidia.ko) consists of a proprietary part (commonly known as the "binary blob") which drives the graphics chip(s), and an open source part (the "glue") which at runtime acts as intermediary between the proprietary part and the kernel. These all need to work nicely together as otherwise the user might be faced with data loss (through kernel panics, X servers crashing with unsaved data in X applications) and even hardware failure (overheating and other power management related issues should spring to mind).

Kernel compatibility

때때로 새 커널 릴리스에는 드라이버에 대한 내부 ABI가 바뀌는데, 모든 드라이버가 이 ABI를 사용하도록 즉시 바꾸어야 합니다. 오픈소스 드라이버에서는 특히 커널에 배포하는 드라이버의 경우 드라이버간의 호출 매개를 연결하는 전체적인 부분을 수정해야 함은 자명한 사실이며 커널의 다른 부분은 쉽게 검토해볼 수 있습니다. nvidia.ko와 같은 상업용 드라이버는 조금 다르게 동작합니다. 내부 ABI가 바뀌면 "붙어 있는 요소"를 거의 수정할 수 없는데 상업 코드 부분에서 사용하는 고착 부분을 어떻게 활용하는지 알 수 없기 때문입니다. 심지어 그럴싸하게 동작하도록 패치하고 난 후 지원하지 않는 새 커널에서 위험을 감수해가며 nvidia.ko를 실행하면, 데이터를 잃을 수 있고, 하드웨어가 망가질 수 있습니다.

When a new, incompatible kernel version is released, it is probably best to stick with the newest supported kernel for a while. NVIDIA usually takes a few weeks to prepare a new proprietary release they think is fit for general use. Just be patient. If absolutely necessary, then it is possible to use the epatch_user command with the nvidia-drivers ebuilds: this allows the user to patch nvidia-drivers to somehow fit in with the latest, unsupported kernel release. Do note that neither the nvidia-drivers maintainers nor NVIDIA will support this situation. The hardware warranty will most likely be void, Gentoo's maintainers cannot begin to fix the issues since it's a proprietary driver that only NVIDIA can properly debug, and the kernel maintainers (both Gentoo's and upstream) will certainly not support proprietary drivers, or indeed any "tainted" system that happens to run into trouble.

If genkernel all was used to configure the kernel, then everything is all set. If not, double check the kernel configuration so that this support is enabled:

커널 Enable loadable module support
[*] Enable loadable module support --->

커널에서 Memory Type Range Register도 활성화해야 합니다:

커널 MTRR 지원 활성화
Processor type and features --->
    [*] MTRR (Memory Type Range Register) support

If the system has an AGP graphics card, then optionally enable agpgart support to the kernel, either compiled in or as a module. If the in-kernel agpgart module is not used, then the drivers will use its own agpgart implementation, called NvAGP. On certain systems, this performs better than the in-kernel agpgart, and on others, it performs worse. Evaluate either choice on the system to get the best performance. When uncertain what to do, use the in-kernel agpgart:

커널 Enable agpgart support
Device Drivers --->
   Graphics support --->
      -*- /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) --->
amd64에서는 IOMMU가 agpgart 설정을 관리합니다.
For x86 and AMD64 processors, the in-kernel framebuffer driver conflicts with the binary driver provided by NVIDIA. When compiling the kernel for these CPUs, completely remove support for the in-kernel driver as shown:
커널 Disable support for the in-kernel driver
Device Drivers --->
    Graphics support --->
        Frame buffer Devices --->
            <*> Support for frame buffer devices --->
            < >   nVidia Framebuffer Support
            < >   nVidia Riva support

Now make sure the nouveau driver is disabled:

Device Drivers  --->
    Graphics support  --->
        < > Nouveau (nVidia) cards

A framebuffer alternative is uvesafb, which can be installed parallel to x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers.

For x86 and AMD64 processors, the uvesafb driver conflicts with the binary driver provided by NVIDIA above 361.28 versions.

For (U)EFI systems, uvesafb will not work. Be warned that enabling efifb support in kernel (CONFIG_FB_EFI=y) causes intermittent problems with the initialization of the NVIDIA drivers. There is no known alternative framebuffer for (U)EFI systems.

The nvidia-drivers ebuild automatically discovers the kernel version based on the /usr/src/linux symlink. Please ensure that this symlink is pointing to the correct sources and that the kernel is correctly configured. Please refer to the "Configuring the Kernel" section of the Gentoo Handbook for details on configuring the kernel.

First, choose the right kernel source using eselect. When using sys-kernel/gentoo-sources version 3.7.10 for instance, the kernel listing might look something like this:

root #eselect kernel list
Available kernel symlink targets:
  [1]   linux-3.7.10-gentoo *
  [2]   linux-3.7.9-gentoo

In the above output, notice that the linux-3.7.10-gentoo kernel is marked with an asterisk (*) to show that it is the kernel that the symbolic link points to.

If the symlink is not pointing to the correct sources, update the link by selecting the number of the desired kernel sources, as in the example above.

root #eselect kernel set 1



이제 드라이버를 설치할 차례입니다. 먼저 X서버 설정 안내서를 따른 후, /etc/portage/make.confVIDEO_CARDS="nvidia" 설정을 넣으십시오. 그러면 X 서버를 설치할 때 올바른 버전의 x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers를 알아서 설치합니다.

The drivers can be installed with the tools USE flag. This will install nvidia-settings, a handy graphical tool for monitoring and configuring several aspects of the NVIDIA card.
Every time a kernel is built, it is necessary to reinstall the NVIDIA kernel modules. An easy way to rebuild the modules installed by ebuilds (such as x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers) is to run emerge @module-rebuild.

Once the installation has finished, run modprobe nvidia to load the kernel module into memory. If this is an upgrade, remove the previous module first.

root #lsmod | grep nvidia
root #rmmod nvidia
root #modprobe nvidia

부팅할 때마다 모듈을 수동으로 하나하나 불러오는 일을 피하려 시스템을 매번 부팅할 때 자동으로 처리하려 할테니, /etc/conf.d/modules를 편집하여 nvidia를 추가하십시오.

agpgart를 모듈로 컴파일하면, 마찬가지로 /etc/conf.d/modules에 추가해야 합니다.

Kernel module signing (optional)

The information in this section in unnecessary for systems that do not implement signed kernel modules. Feel free to skip it.

If secure boot kernel signing is used, then the NVIDIA kernel modules need to be signed before they can be loaded.

This can be accomplished by using the kernel-provided perl script as follows.

root #/usr/src/linux/scripts/sign-file sha512 /usr/src/linux/certs/signing_key.priv /usr/src/linux/certs/signing_key.x509 /lib/modules/Kernel-Version-modules-path/video/nvidia-uvm.ko
root #/usr/src/linux/scripts/sign-file sha512 /usr/src/linux/certs/signing_key.priv /usr/src/linux/certs/signing_key.x509 /lib/modules/Kernel-Version-modules-path/video/nvidia.ko

As of driver version 358.09 a new module has been made to handle monitor mode setting and for this driver version this module must also be signed.

root #/usr/src/linux/scripts/sign-file sha512 /usr/src/linux/certs/signing_key.priv /usr/src/linux/certs/signing_key.x509 /lib/modules/Kernel-Version-modules-path/video/nvidia-modeset.ko

Once the modules are signed, the driver will load as expected on boot up. This module signing method can be used to sign other modules too - not only the nvidia-drivers. Just modify the path and corresponding module accordingly.

The X server

Once the appropriate drivers are installed, configure the X server to use the nvidia driver instead of the default nv driver.

파일 /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/nvidia.confExplicit nvidia driver section
Section "Device"
   Identifier  "nvidia"
   Driver      "nvidia"

Run eselect so that the X server uses the NVIDIA GLX libraries:

root #eselect opengl set nvidia


The user(s) needing to access the video card will need to be added to the video group:

root #gpasswd -a larry video

Note that users will be able to run X without permission to the DRI subsystem, but acceleration will be disabled.

Enabling global nvidia support

Some tools, such as media-video/mplayer and media-libs/xine-lib, use a local USE flag called xvmc which enables XvMCNVIDIA support, useful when watching high resolution movies. Add in xvmc in the USE variable in /etc/portage/make.conf or add it as USE flag to media-video/mplayer and/or media-libs/xine-lib in /etc/portage/package.use.

GeForce 8 series and later GPUs do come with VDPAU support which superseded XvMCNVIDIA support. See the VDPAU article for enabling VDPAU support.

There are also some applications that use the nvidia USE flag, so it might be a good idea to add it to /etc/portage/make.conf.

Then, run emerge -uD --newuse @world to rebuild the applications that benefit from the USE flag change.

Using the nVidia settings tool

NVIDIA also provides a settings tool. This tool allows the user to monitor and change graphical settings without restarting the X server and is available through Portage as part of x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers with the tools USE flag set.

OpenGL/OpenCL 활성화

To enable OpenGL and OpenCL though the device, run:

root #eselect opengl set nvidia
root #eselect opencl set nvidia

Make sure that the Xorg server is not running during these changes.


Testing the card

To test the NVIDIA card, fire up X and run glxinfo, which is part of the x11-apps/mesa-progs package. It should say that direct rendering is activated:

user $glxinfo | grep direct
direct rendering:  Yes

To monitor the FPS, run glxgears.

문제 해결

For an overview of the currently open bugs reported against the x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers package, take a look at the Gentoo bugtracker: known bugs.

FATAL: modpost: GPL-incompatible module *.ko uses GPL-only symbol

When the ebuild is complaining about the 'mutex_destroy' GPL-only symbol:

root #emerge nvidia-drivers
FATAL: modpost: GPL-incompatible module nvidia.ko uses GPL-only symbol 'mutex_destroy' 

Be sure to disable CONFIG_DEBUG_MUTEXES in the kernel's .config file, as suggested by this forum thread.

MSI 인터럽트를 활성화 하면 드라이버 초기화에 실패하네요

리눅스 NVIDIA 드라이버는 메시지 신호 인터럽트(MSI)를 기본으로 사용합니다. 이 기능은 호환성과 확장성의 장점을 제공하는데, 주된 이유라면 IRQ 공유를 막기 위해서입니다. 어떤 시스템에서는 가상 연결 인터럽트로 제대로 동작하지만, 일부 시스템에서는 MSI 지원에 문제가 있어보입니다. 이 문제는 NVIDIA 드라이버로 X를 시작하는데 있어서 불가능한 것으로 보이며, 또는 CUDA 초기화 문제로 보이기도 합니다.

MSI 인터럽트는 NVIDIA 커널 모듈 매개변수에 NVreg_EnableMSI=0 값을 부여하여 비활성화 할 수 있습니다. 이 값은 모듈을 불러오는 과정에서, 또는 배포본에서 제공하는 커널 모듈 설정 파일(/etc/modprobe.d/ 같은 디렉터리에 있음)에서 설정할 수 있습니다.

예를 들자면:

파일 /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia.confSetting nvidia NVreg_EnableMSI
# Nvidia drivers support
alias char-major-195 nvidia
alias /dev/nvidiactl char-major-195
# To tweak the driver the following options can be used, note that
# you should be careful, as it could cause instability!! For more 
# options see /usr/share/doc/nvidia-drivers-337.19/README 
options nvidia NVreg_DeviceFileMode=0660 NVreg_DeviceFileUID=0 NVreg_DeviceFileGID=27 NVreg_ModifyDeviceFiles=1 NVreg_EnableMSI=0

4GB 이상 용량의 메모리를 가진 머신에서 2D 가속 활성화하기

When NVIDIA 2D acceleration is giving problems, then it is likely that the system is unable to set up a write-combining range with MTRR. To verify, check the contents of /proc/mtrr:

root #cat /proc/mtrr

Every line should contain write-back or write-combining. When a line shows up with uncachable in it then it is necessary to change a BIOS setting to fix this.

Reboot and enter the BIOS, then find the MTRR settings (probably under "CPU Settings"). Change the setting from continuous to discrete and boot back into Linux. There is now no uncachable entry anymore and 2D acceleration now works without any glitches.

커널 모듈을 불러오려는데 "no such device" 메시지를 받았습니다

보통 다음 문제 중 하나가 원인입니다:

  1. The system does not have a NVIDIA card at all. Check lspci output to confirm that the system has a NVIDIA graphics card installed and detected.
  2. The currently installed version of x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers does not support the installed graphics card model. Check the README file in /usr/share/nvidia-drivers-*/ for a list of supported devices, or use the driver search at http://www.geforce.com/drivers.
  3. Another kernel driver has control of the hardware. Check lspci -k to see if another driver like "nouveau" is bound to the graphics card. If so, disable or blacklist this driver.

Xorg 에서 어떤 화면도 찾을 수 없다고 함

컴퓨터를 부팅하고나서 GUI 화면 대신 어두컴컴한 화면이나 콘솔 프롬프트로 돌아가는 경우가 있습니다. GUI로 부팅하지 못했을 때 Ctrl+Alt+F2키를 눌러서 가상 콘솔로 갈 수 있습니다. 그런 후 다음 명령을 실행하십시오:

root # /etc/init.d/xdm stop
user $ startx
user $ startx
를 실행하여 Xorg 출력을 살펴보십시오. 처음 나타나는 오류가 Xorg에서 어떤 화면도 찾을 수 없다는 문제라면, 이 문제를 해결하기 위해 다음 단계를 따르십시오.

다시 부팅하기 전에 다음 명령을 확실하게 실행해야 합니다:

root #/opt/bin/nvidia-xconfig

But if that doesn't work, run lspci and notice that the video card starts off like this:

root #lspci
 . . .
01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: make and model of videocard
 . . . 

처음 부분 01.00.0을 찾아서 /etc/X11/xorg.confBusID 옵션에 넣으십시오:

파일 /etc/X11/xorg.conf
# this is not the whole file, only the part that needs edited
# the file should already exist after running nvidia-xconfig
Section "Device"
    Identifier     "Device0"
    Driver         "nvidia"
    VendorName     "NVIDIA Corporation"
    BusID          "PCI:1:0:0"

직접 렌더링이 활성화되지 않아요

직접 렌더링이 동작하지 않는다면, 드라이버와 충돌하게끔 커널에서 직접 렌더링 관리자를 활성화했기 때문일 수도 있습니다. 카드 시험하기 장의 절차를 따라 직접 렌더링 상태를 볼 수 있습니다.

먼저 직접 렌더링 관리자(CONFIG_DRM)를 커널에서 비활성화 하십시오:

커널 직접 렌더링 관리자(DRM) 비활성화
Device drivers --->
    Graphics support --->
        < > Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support)

그리고 커널 DRM 심볼에 대해 드라이버를 빌드했을터이니 x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers를 다시 빌드하십시오. 이리 하면 문제를 해결할 수 있습니다.

동영상 재생이 버벅거리고 느린데요

Lately there seems to be some breaking with playback of some types of video with the NVIDIA binary drivers, causing slow video playback or significant stuttering. This problem seems to be occurring within the Intel CPU Idle replacement instead of the common ACPI CPU idling method for certain CPU's.

Disable the Intel CPU idling method using intel_idle.max_cstate=0 on the kernel command line boot method, which should cause the kernel to automatically fall back to the normal or older ACPI CPU idling method. Also, disabling the NVIDIA Powermizer feature, or setting Powermizer to maximum performance within nvidia-settings has been said to help. Although the Intel CPU idling method recently was introduced as the default CPU idling method for i5 and i7 CPUs (versus using ACPI CPU idling) is the root cause here. This idling method significantly solves the problem, however some minimal stuttering or slow video is encountered if deinterlacing was enabled; this is when the video is likely already deinterlaced (ie. alias mplayer-nodeint with something similar to mplayer -vo vdpau:deint=0:denoise=0:nochroma-deint:colorspace=0:hqscaling=1, video.mpg as a work around.)

No vertical synchronization (no VSync, tearing) in OpenGL applications

Adding the following option to the screen section prevents tearing on GTX 660, 660 Ti, and probably some other GPUs (reference):

파일 /etc/X11/xorg.conf
Section "Section"
     . . .
    Option         "metamodes" "nvidia-auto-select +0+0 { ForceFullCompositionPipeline = On }"
     . . .

전문가 설정


x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers 꾸러미에는 실용적인 문서가 있습니다. 이 문서는 /usr/share/doc에 있으며 다음 명령으로 살펴볼 수 있습니다:
user $less /usr/share/doc/nvidia-drivers-*/README.bz2

커널 모듈 매개 변수

The nvidia kernel module accepts a number of parameters (options) which can be used to tweak the behavior of the driver. Most of these are mentioned in the documentation. To add or change the values of these parameters, edit the file /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia.conf. Remember to run update-modules after modifying this file, and bear in mind to reload the nvidia module before the new settings take effect.

Pay close attention to this section as these kernel options can enable features that the hardware may or may not support. These options are not forgiving, so be careful with the parameters. Do not made any changes without validating and double-checking that the change is needed.
Attribute Default Description
NVreg_DeviceFileUID 0 Modify the user ID for the device file. The default value sets it to the root user. Setting this to another user ID will make the driver module create the device file with access available to that user ID.
NVreg_DeviceFileGID 27 Modify the Group ID for the device file. The default value sets it to the video group.
NVreg_DeviceFileMode Undefined Set the permissions for the device file. A value of 0660 grants the owner and group-owner read-write access while other users cannot access the device file.
NVreg_ModifyDeviceFiles 1 Instruct the driver to enable or disable dynamic device file management.
NVreg_EnablePCIeGen3 0 Enable PCIe Gen 3.x support. If the system supports this 8GT high speed bus then enable it with this module option flag. When this is enabled but the system does not support Gen 3.0, the behavior of the system can become irratic and unstable. Some have even reported damage to hardware enabling this when it is not properly supported. By default the Nvidia driver is set to use PCIe Gen 2.x for compatibility reasons.
NVreg_UsePageAttributeTable 0 This is one of the latest and newest additions to the Nvidia driver modules option. It allows the driver to take full advantage of the PAT technology - a newer way of allocating memory, replacing the older Memory Type Range Register (MTRR) method. The PAT method creates a partition type table at a specific address mapped inside the register and utilizes the memory architecture and instruction set more efficiently and faster. If the computer supports PAT and the feature is enabled in the kernel then this flag can be enabled. Without PAT support, users may experience unstable performance and even crashes if this is enabled. So be careful with these options.
NVreg_EnableVia4x 0 Enable AGP 4x mode in the the NVIDIA driver on Via-chipset-powered systems. Some of these hardware configurations would not work properly in AGP 4x mode when others would. The default leaves it at AGP 2x mode.
NVreg_EnableALiAGP 0 On ALi1541 and ALi1647 chipsets, AGP support is by default disabled by the NVIDIA drivers. The value specifies the speed factor to use, so the values 1, 2, 4 and 8 represent AGP 1x, 2x, 4x and 8x respectively. NVIDIA does not recommend changing the value as it may lead to unstable systems.
NVreg_ReqAGPRate Unspecified Forces the AGP mode on the driver. For instance, a value of 1 means AGP 1x, while a value of 4 means AGP 4x.
NVreg_NvAGP Changes the AGP Gart mode setting. Possible values are: 0 (Disable), 1 (Enable using NVIDIAs internal AGP-Gart), 2 (Enable using the Linux kernel AGP-Gart) and 3 (Enable and use any available, but try th NVIDIA internal one first).
NVreg_EnableAGPSBA 0 Disables (0) or enables (1) AGP Side Banding. For stability reasons, the setting is by default disabled, but the setting can be enabled for testing and debugging purposes. This is not supported by NVIDIA though.
NVreg_EnableAGPFW 0 Enables AGP Fast-Writes when set to 1. Depending on the system's chipset this may cause stability issues if enabled.
NVreg_Mobile 0 Through this setting, users can force the EDID information for particular systems. This workaround is provided for mobile GPU's where EDID information is either non-functional or disabled. Potential values are 0 (Auto detection of the correct setting), 1 (Dell notebooks), 2 (non-Compa1 Toshiba laptops), 3 (All other notebooks/laptops), 4 (Compa1 Toshiba laptops) or 5 (Gateway machines).
NVreg_RemapLimit 60 Maximum amount of system memory remapping. It specifies the amount of memory that the driver will be allowed to remap through the IOMMU/SWIOTLB on a 64-bit system. Only use it if the IOMMU or SMIOTLB is larger than 64mb. NVIDIA recommends to subtract 4mb from the total amount of memory to use. For instance, the default value is 60 which is in fact 64mb. To set it to 128mb, set the value to 124.
NVreg_UpdateMemoryTypes 0 Tweak the use of page table attributes. Possible values are: 0 (Nvidias logic mechanism), 1 (Enable the use of changed page table attributes) and 2 (Disable the use of page table attributes).
NVreg_InitializeSystemMemoryAllocations 1 Tell the NVIDIA driver to clear system memory allocations prior to using it for the GPUs. Disabling can give a slight performance boost but at the cost of increased security risks. By default the driver will wipe the allocated by zeroing out its content.
NVreg_UseVBios 1 Enable or disable the use of the video BIOS int10 code. Set to 0 to disable.
NVreg_RMEdgeIntrCheck Unspecified Enable or disable checking for edge-triggered interrupts.
NVreg_EnableMSI 0 Enable or disable PCIe-MSI capabilities. Enable this to use MSI interrupts instead of wired interrupts.
NVreg_MapRegistersEarly 0 If set to 1, allow the driver to map the memory locations early when the system is probing the hardware instead of the default option of doing this when loaded by modprobe or during startx. This is a debugging feature.
NVreg_RegisterForACPIEvents 1 Enable the driver to register with the ACPI of the system to receive ACPI events. This can be disabled (0) when issues occur with ACPI or while debugging an issue.

Edit the /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia.conf file, and afterwards update the module information:

root #update-modules

Unload the nvidia module...

root #modprobe -r nvidia

...그리고 다시 불러오십시오:

root #modprobe nvidia

고급 X 설정

GLX 계층에는 설정 가능한 상당히 많은 옵션이 있습니다. TV 출력, 듀얼 디스플레이, 모니터 주파수 감지 등의 설정을 다룰 수 있습니다. 다시 말씀드리지만, 여기에 있는 모든 옵션은 문서에 자세히 설명되어 있습니다.

이 옵션을 사용하려면 X 설정 파일의 관련 장치 섹션에 있는 목록을 살펴봐야 합니다(보통 /etc/X11/xorg.conf에 있음). 가령, 스플래시 로고를 비활성화 하려는 상황을 가정해보겠습니다.

파일 /etc/X11/xorg.conf스플래시 로고 비활성화
Section "Device"
  Identifier "nVidia Inc. GeForce2"
  Driver     "nvidia"
  Option     "NoLogo" "true"
  VideoRam   65536

추가 참조

This page is based on a document formerly found on our main website gentoo.org.
The following people contributed to the original document: Sven Vermeulen (SwifT), Joshua Saddler (nightmorph), M Curtis Napier and Chris Gianelloni
They are listed here because wiki history does not allow for any external attribution. If you edit the wiki article, please do not add yourself here; your contributions are recorded on each article's associated history page.