Linux 固件

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This page is a translated version of the page Linux firmware and the translation is 59% complete.
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Linux 固件是与 Linux 内核一起发行的软件包,它包含了某些硬件设备部分或全部功能所需固件的二进制 blob 。 因为一些硬件制造商不开放构建固件的源代码,所以这些二进制 blob 一般来说是专有 blob。

现在的超威半导体英伟达显卡一般都需要二进制 blob 才能正确的加载硬件。

Starting at Broxton (a Skylake-based micro-architecture) Intel CPUs require binary blobs for additional low-power idle states (DMC), graphics workload scheduling on the various graphics parallel engines (GuC), and offloading some media functions from the CPU to GPU (HuC).[1]

此外,现在的英特尔 Wi-Fi 芯片组大多都需要 blob。[2]


出于安全原因,要避免在运行中的内核热加载固件。现代的 init 系统,比如说

systemd 强烈反对从用户空间加载固件。


Including firmware files into binary kernel images that are not available under the terms of the GPL, may result in a violation of the GPL if the image is distributed. It is wise to consult a lawyer before distributing images that contain firmware files from sys-kernel/linux-firmware.

A few kernel options are important to consider when building in firmware support for certain devices in the Linux kernel (for kernels beginning with 4.18):

Firmware loading facility (CONFIG_FW_LOADER)
This option is provided for the case where none of the in-tree modules require userspace firmware loading support, but a module built out-of-tree does.
Build named firmware blobs into the kernel binary (CONFIG_EXTRA_FIRMWARE)
This option is a string and takes the (space-separated) names of firmware files to be built into the kernel. These files will then be accessible to the kernel at runtime.
内核 Enable support for Linux firmware
Device Drivers  --->
  Generic Driver Options  --->
    Firmware loader --->
       -*- Firmware loading facility
       ()    Build named firmware blobs into the kernel binary
       # Optional: Enable compressed firmware support
       [*]   Enable compressed firmware support
       [*]     Enable XZ-compressed firmware support
       [*]     Enable ZSTD-compressed firmware support

USE 标记

USE flags for sys-kernel/linux-firmware Linux firmware files

bindist Flag to enable or disable options for prebuilt (GRP) packages (eg. due to licensing issues)
compress-xz Compress firmware using xz (app-arch/xz-utils) before installation
compress-zstd Compress firmware using zstd (app-arch/zstd) before installation
deduplicate Create symlinks for all firmware that is duplicate using rdfind
dist-kernel Enable subslot rebuilds on Distribution Kernel upgrades
initramfs Create and install initramfs for early microcode loading in /boot (only AMD for now)
redistributable Install also non-free (but redistributable) firmware files
savedconfig Allows individual selection of firmware files
unknown-license Install firmware files whose license is unknown


root #emerge --ask sys-kernel/linux-firmware


After emerging sys-kernel/linux-firmware, the configuration file is made into /etc/portage/savedconfig/sys-kernel/linux-firmware-ddmmyyyy. This file can be edited and the unwanted lines be commented out or deleted. Edit and save the file and re-emerge sys-kernel/linux-firmware with the savedconfig USE flag:

root #echo sys-kernel/linux-firmware savedconfig >> /etc/portage/package.use/kernel
root #emerge --ask sys-kernel/linux-firmware


Firmware to be loaded into the kernel can be compressed in order to achieve greater space efficiency and faster read speeds (at the expense of processing time). See the CONFIG_FW_LOADER_COMPRESS kernel symbol for additional information.

sys-kernel/linux-firmware supports either xz or zstd (starting from Linux kernel 5.19[3]) compression via appropriate USE-flags. The kernel configuration should include CONFIG_FW_LOADER_COMPRESS_XZ and/or CONFIG_FW_LOADER_COMPRESS_ZSTD options to support these compression formats.


Searching for loaded firmware

dmesg can be grepped to determine what firmware has been loaded:

user $dmesg | grep -i firmware



root #emerge --ask --depclean --verbose sys-kernel/linux-firmware


  • Fwupd — a daemon that provides a safe, reliable way of applying firmware updates on Linux.
  • Kernel — 操作系统的核心。
  • IwlwifiIntel's current wireless chips的无线驱动
  • Microcode — describes various ways to update a CPU's microcode in Gentoo.
  • AMDGPU — 新一代开源图形驱动程序系列,采用新的显示核心(Display Core, DC)框架,专为 Vega、Raven Ridge 及后续 GPU 设计。然而,它还能够支持基于 GCN1.0+ 架构的较新 AMD/ATI Radeon 系列显卡,包括但不限于南方群岛(Southern Islands)、海洋群岛(Sea Islands)、火山群岛(Volcanic Islands)以及北极群岛(Arctic Islands)系列芯片组。
  • Intel — the open source graphics driver for Intel GMA on-board graphics cards and Intel Arc dedicated graphics cards, starting with the Intel 810.