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This page is a translated version of the page Handbook:X86/Networking/Modular and the translation is 50% complete.
X86 கையேடு
நிறுவலைப் பற்றி
ஊடகத்தைத் தேர்ந்தெடுத்தல்
வலையமைப்பை உள்ளமைத்தல்
தகடுகளை ஆயத்தப்படுத்தல்
நிலை3 ஐ நிறுவுதல்
அடிப்படை முறைமையை நிறுவுதல்
கருநிரலை உள்ளமைத்தல்
முறைமையை உள்ளமைத்தல்
கருவிகளை நிறுவுதல்
துவக்க ஏற்றியை உள்ளமைத்தல்
நிறுவலை முடித்தல்
சென்டூவோடு வேளை செய்தல்
Portage முன்னுரை
USE கொடிகள்
Portage தனிச்சிறப்புகள்
Init குறுநிரல் முறைமை
சூழல் மாறிகள்
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கோப்புகள் மற்றும் அடைவுகள்
மென்பொருள் கிளைகளைக் கலக்குதல்
கூடுதல் கருவிகள்
தனிப்பயன் தொகுப்பு கருவூலம்
மேம்பட்ட தனிச்சிறப்புகள்
வலையமைப்பு உள்ளமைவு
மேம்பட்ட உள்ளமைவு
கூறுநிலை வலையமாக்கம்
செயல்பாடுகளைச் சேர்த்தல்
இயக்க மேலாண்மை

வலையமைப்பு கூறுகள்

Netifrc scripts now support modular networking scripts, which means support for new interface types and configuration modules can easily be added while keeping compatibility with existing ones.

Modules load by default if the package they need is installed. If users specify a module here that doesn't have its package installed then they get an error stating which package they need to install. Ideally, the modules setting is only used when two or more packages are installed that supply the same service and one needs to be preferred over the other.

All settings discussed here are stored in /etc/conf.d/net unless otherwise specified.
கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netModule definitions
# Prefer ifconfig over iproute2
# You can also specify other modules for an interface
# In this case we prefer dhclient over dhcpcd
# You can also specify which modules not to use - for example you may be
# using a supplicant or linux-wlan-ng to control wireless configuration but
# you still want to configure network settings per ESSID associated with.

இடைமுக கையாளு நிரல்கள்

We provide two interface handlers presently: ifconfig and iproute2. Only one of these is needed to do any kind of network configuration.

Both are installed by default as part of the system profile. iproute2 is the more powerful and flexible package.

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netiproute2 is installed but still prefer ifconfig
# To prefer ifconfig over iproute2 if both are installed as openrc prefers
# to use iproute2 then

As both ifconfig and iproute2 do very similar things we allow their basic configuration to work with each other. For example both the below code snippet work regardless of which module the user is using.

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netExample different approaches for configuration
config_eth0=" netmask"
# We can also specify broadcast
config_eth0=" brd"
config_eth0=" netmask broadcast"


DHCP is a means of obtaining network information (IP address, DNS servers, Gateway, etc) from a DHCP server. This means that if there is a DHCP server running on the network, the user just has to tell each client to use DHCP and it sets up the network all by itself. Of course, the user may have to configure a connection to a wireless AP, PPPoE, or other aspects before the DHCP service can be used.

DHCP can be provided by dhclient or dhcpcd. Each DHCP module has its pros and cons - here is a quick run down:

DHCP module Package Pros Cons
dhclient net-misc/dhcp Made by ISC, the same people who make the BIND DNS software. Very configurable. Can be used to provide DHCPv4 or DHCPv6. Configuration is overly complex, software is quite bloated, cannot get NTP servers from DHCP, does not send hostname by default. No longer maintained upstream.
dhcpcd net-misc/dhcpcd Long time Gentoo default, no reliance on outside tools, actively developed by Gentoo. Provides DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 at the same time. Can be slow at times, does not yet daemonize when lease is infinite.

If more than one DHCP client is installed, specify which one to use - otherwise dhcpcd is used by default (if it is installed).

To send specific options to the DHCP module, use module_eth0="..." (change module to the DHCP module being used - i.e. dhcpcd_eth0).

We try to make DHCP relatively agnostic - as such we support the following commands using the dhcp_eth0 variable. The default is not to set any of them:

Releases the IP address for re-use.
Don't overwrite /etc/resolv.conf
Don't overwrite /etc/ntp.conf
Don't overwrite /etc/yp.conf
கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netSample DHCP (v4) configuration
# Only needed if more than one DHCP module is installed
dhcpcd_eth0="-t 10" # Timeout after 10 seconds
dhcp_eth0="release nodns nontp nonis" # Only get an address
dhcpcd sends the current hostname to the DHCP server by default so this no longer needs to be specified.
கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netSample DHCPv6 configuration
# Only needed if more than one DHCP module is installed
# To use both DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 on a dual-stack network, remove the above line and uncomment the following lines

<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
# To pass runtime arguments to dhclient for DHCPv6
dhclientv6_eth0="-t 10" # Timeout after 10 seconds

<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
# Set generic DHCPv6 options
dhcpv6_eth0="release nodns nontp nonis nogateway nosendhost"


முதலில் ADSL மென்பொருளை நிறுவவும்:

root #emerge --ask net-dialup/ppp

அடுத்து, PPP வலை குறுநிரல் மற்றும் PPP ஆல் பயன்படுத்தப்படும் ஈத்தர்வலை இடைமுகத்திற்கான வலை குறுநிரல் ஆகியவற்றை உருவாக்கவும்:

root #ln -s /etc/init.d/net.lo /etc/init.d/net.ppp0
root #ln -s /etc/init.d/net.lo /etc/init.d/net.eth0

/etc/rc.conf இல் rc_depend_strict என்னும் மாறிக்கு YES என அமைப்பதை உறுதிசெய்து கொள்ளவும்.

இப்போது நாம் /etc/conf.d/net ஐ உள்ளமைக்க வேண்டும்.

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netஅடிப்படை PPPoE அமைவு
config_eth0=null (ஈத்தர்வலை இடைமுகத்தை குறிப்பிடவும்)
link_ppp0="eth0" (ஈத்தர்வலை இடைமுகத்தை குறிப்பிடவும்)
holdoff 3
child-timeout 60
lcp-echo-interval 15
lcp-echo-failure 3
noaccomp noccp nobsdcomp nodeflate nopcomp novj novjccomp"

/etc/ppp/pap-secrets இனுள் கடவுச்சொல்லை அமைக்கவும் வாய்ப்புள்ளது.

கோப்பு /etc/ppp/pap-secretsமாதிரி pap-secrets
# இதில் * என்னும் குறி முக்கியமானது
"பயனர்பெயர்"  *  "கடவுச்சொல்"

If PPPoE is used with a USB modem then make sure to emerge br2684ctl. Please read /var/db/repos/gentoo/net-dialup/speedtouch-usb/files/README for information on how to properly configure it.

Please carefully read the section on ADSL and PPP in /usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2. It contains many more detailed explanations of all the settings any particular PPP setup will likely need.

APIPA (தானியக்க தனியார் IP முகவரியாக்கம்)

APIPA tries to find a free address in the range by arping a random address in that range on the interface. If no reply is found then we assign that address to the interface.

This is only useful for LANs where there is no DHCP server and the system doesn't connect directly to the Internet and all other computers use APIPA.

For APIPA support, emerge net-misc/iputils with the arping USE flag or net-analyzer/arping.

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netAPIPA configuration
# Try DHCP first - if that fails then fallback to APIPA
# Just use APIPA


Bonding is used to increase network bandwidth or to improve resiliency in face of hardware failures. If a system has two network cards going to the same network, then the administrator can bond them together so the applications see just one interface but they really use both network cards.

There are many ways to configure bonding. Some of them, such as the 802.3ad LACP mode, require support and additional configuration of the network switch. For a reference of the individual options, please refer to the local copy of /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt.

First, clear the configuration of the participating interfaces:

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netClearing interface configuration

Next, define the bonding between the interfaces:

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netDefine the bonding
slaves_bond0="eth0 eth1 eth2"
# Pick a correct mode and additional configuration options which suit your needs

Remove the net.eth* services from the runlevels, create a net.bond0 one and add that one to the correct runlevel.

== பாலமிடல் (802.1d கான ஆதரவு)

Bridging is used to join networks together. For example, a system may have a server that connects to the Internet via an ADSL modem and a wireless access card to enable other computers to connect to the Internet via the ADSL modem. It is possible to create a bridge to join the two interfaces together.

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netBridge configuration
# Configure the bridge - "man brctl" for more details
# To add ports to bridge br0
bridge_br0="eth0 eth1"
# You need to configure the ports to null values so dhcp does not get started
# Finally give the bridge an address - you could use DHCP as well
# Depend on eth0 and eth1 as they may require extra configuration
rc_net_br0_need="net.eth0 net.eth1"
For using some bridge setups, consult the variable name documentation.
When bridging using IPv6, SLAAC requires STP to be set to 1 as seen in the example above.

MAC முகவரி

It is possible to change the MAC address of the interfaces through the network configuration file too.

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netMAC Address change example
# To set the MAC address of the interface
# To randomize the last 3 bytes only
# To randomize between the same physical type of connection (e.g. fibre,
# copper, wireless) , all vendors
# To randomize between any physical type of connection (e.g. fibre, copper,
# wireless) , all vendors
# Full randomization - WARNING: some MAC addresses generated by this may
# NOT act as expected


Tunneling does not require any additional software to be installed as the interface handler can do it.

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netTunneling configuration
# For GRE tunnels
iptunnel_vpn0="mode gre remote key 0xffffffff ttl 255"
# For IPIP tunnels
iptunnel_vpn0="mode ipip remote ttl 255"
# To configure the interface
config_vpn0=" peer"

VLAN (802.1q கான ஆதரவு)

VLAN ற்கான ஆதரவிற்கு, sys-apps/iproute2 தொகுப்பு நிறுவப்பட்டிருக்கிறதா என்பதை சரிபார்த்துக்கொள்ளவும். மேலும் உள்ளமைவு கூறிற்கு ifconfig ற்கு பதிலாக iproute2 பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டுள்ளதா என்பதை உறுதிப்படுத்திக்கொள்ளவும்.

Virtual LAN is a group of network devices that behave as if they were connected to a single network segment - even though they may not be. VLAN members can only see members of the same VLAN even though they may share the same physical network.

To configure VLANs, first specify the VLAN numbers in /etc/conf.d/net like so:

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netVLAN எண்களைக் குறிப்பிடுதல்
vlans_eth0="1 2"

அடுத்து, ஒவ்வொரு VLAN ற்கும் இடைமுகத்தை உள்ளமைக்கவும்:

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netஒவ்வொரு VLAN ற்கான இடைமுக உள்ளமைவு
config_eth0_1=" netmask"
routes_eth0_1="default via"
config_eth0_2=" netmask"
routes_eth0_2="default via"

VLAN சார்ந்த உள்ளமைவுகள் vconfig ஆல் இதைப்போல் கையாளப்படுகிறது:

கோப்பு /etc/conf.d/netVLAN களை உள்ளமைத்தல்
vlan1_ingress="2:6 3:5"
சில VLAN அமைவுகளைப் பயன்படுத்துவதற்கு, மாறி பெயர் ஆவணப்படுத்தலைப் பார்வையிடவும்.