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ZFS is a next generation filesystem created by Matthew Ahrens and Jeff Bonwick. It was designed around a few key ideas:

  • Administration of storage should be simple.
  • Redundancy should be handled by the filesystem.
  • File-systems should never be taken offline for repair.
  • Automated simulations of worst case scenarios before shipping code is important.
  • Data integrity is paramount.

Development of ZFS started in 2001 at Sun Microsystems. It was released under the CDDL in 2005 as part of Open Solaris. Pawel Jakub Dawidek ported ZFS to FreeBSD in 2007. Brian Behlendorf at LLNL started the ZFSOnLinux project in 2008 to port ZFS to Linux for High Performance Computing. Oracle purchased Sun Microsystems in 2010 and discontinued Open Solaris later that year. The Illumos project started to replace Open Solaris and roughly 2/3 of the core ZFS team resigned, including Matthew Ahrens and Jeff Bonwick. Most of them took jobs at companies and continue to develop Open Source ZFS as part of the Illumos project. The 1/3 of the ZFS core team at Oracle that did not resign continue development of an incompatible proprietary branch of ZFS in Oracle Solaris. The first release of Solaris included a few innovative changes that were under development prior to the mass resignation. Subsequent releases of Solaris have included fewer and less ambitious changes. Significant innovation continues in the open source branch of ZFS developed in Illumos. Today, a growing community continues development of the open source branch of ZFS across multiple platforms, including FreeBSD, Illumos, Linux and Mac OS X.


A detailed list of features can be found in a separate article.



sys-fs/zfs requires Zlib kernel support (module or builtin).

Cryptographic API --->
  <*> Deflate compression algorithm


There are out-of-tree Linux kernel modules available from the ZFSOnLinux Project. Since version 0.6.1, ZFS is considered "ready for wide scale deployment on everything from desktops to super computers" stable for wide scale deployment, by the ZFSOnLinux Project.

All changes to the GIT repository are subject to regression tests by LLNL.


To install ZFS on Gentoo Linux run:

root #emerge --ask sys-fs/zfs
Remerge sys-fs/zfs-kmod after every kernel compile, even if the kernel changes are trivial. If you recompile the kernel after the merging the kernel modules, you may encounter problems with zpool entering uninterruptible sleep (unkillable process) or crashing on execute.
root #emerge -va @module-rebuild

The latest upstream versions require keywording the live ebuilds (optional):

root #echo "=sys-fs/zfs-kmod-9999 **" >> /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords/zfs-kmod
root #echo "=sys-fs/zfs-9999 **" >> /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords/zfs

Add the zfs scripts to the run levels to do initialization at boot:

root #rc-update add zfs-import boot
root #rc-update add zfs-mount boot
root #rc-update add zfs-share default
root #rc-update add zfs-zed default
Only the first two are necessary for most setups. zfs-share is for people using NFS shares while zfs-zed is for the ZFS Event Daemon that handles disk replacement via hotspares and email notification of failures.
For those who want to use ZFS as root file system, as well as those who put their swaps on ZFS, they might add zfs-import and zfs-mount to sysinit level to make the file system accessible during boot or shutdown process.

USE flags

USE flags for sys-fs/zfs Userland utilities for ZFS Linux kernel module

custom-cflags Build with user-specified CFLAGS (unsupported)
debug Enable extra debug codepaths, like asserts and extra output. If you want to get meaningful backtraces see https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Project:Quality_Assurance/Backtraces
dist-kernel Enable subslot rebuilds on Distribution Kernel upgrades
kernel-builtin Disable dependency on sys-fs/zfs-kmod under the assumption that ZFS is part of the kernel source tree
minimal Don't install python scripts (arcstat, dbufstat etc) and avoid dependency on dev-lang/python
nls Add Native Language Support (using gettextGNU locale utilities)
pam Install zfs_key pam module, for automatically loading zfs encryption keys for home datasets
python Add optional support/bindings for the Python language
rootfs Enable dependencies required for booting off a pool containing a rootfs
split-usr Enable behavior to support maintaining /bin, /lib*, /sbin and /usr/sbin separately from /usr/bin and /usr/lib*
static-libs Build static versions of dynamic libraries as well
test-suite Install regression test suite


ZFSOnLinux uses ARC page replacement algorithm instead of the Last Recently Used page replacement algorithm used by other filesystems. This has a better hit rate, therefore providing better performance. The implementation of ARC in ZFS differs from the original paper in that the amount of memory used as cache can vary. This permits memory used by ARC to be reclaimed when the system is under memory pressure (via the kernel's shrinker mechanism) and grow when the system has memory to spare. The minimum and maximum amount of memory allocated to ARC varies based on your system memory. The default minimum is 1/32 of all memory, or 64MB, whichever is more. The default maximum is the larger of 1/2 of system memory or 64MB.

The manner in which Linux accounts for memory used by ARC differs from memory used by the page cache. Specifically, memory used by ARC is included under "used" rather than "cached" in the output used by the `free` program. This in no way prevents the memory from being released when the system is low on memory. However, it can give the impression that ARC (and by extension ZFS) will use all of system memory if given the opportunity.

Adjusting ARC memory usage

The minimum and maximum memory usage of ARC is tunable via zfs_arc_min and zfs_arc_max respectively. These properties can be set any of three ways. The first is at runtime (new in 0.6.2):

root #echo 536870912 >> /sys/module/zfs/parameters/zfs_arc_max
This sysfs value became writable in ZFSOnLinux 0.6.2. Changes through sysfs do not persist across boots. Also, the value in sysfs will be 0 when this value has not been manually configured. The current setting can be viewed by looking at c_max in /proc/spl/kstat/zfs/arcstats

The second is via /etc/modprobe.d/zfs.conf:

root #echo "options zfs zfs_arc_max=536870912" >> /etc/modprobe.d/zfs.conf
If using genkernel to load ZFS, this value must be set before genkernel is run to ensure that the file is copied into the initramfs.

The third is on the kernel commandline by specifying "zfs.zfs_arc_max=536870912" (for 512MB).

Similarly, the same can be done to adjust zfs_arc_min.


Enable the service so it is automatically started at boot time:

root #systemctl enable zfs.target

To manually start the daemon:

root #systemctl start zfs.target

In order to mount zfs pools automatically on boot you need to enable the following services and targets:

root #systemctl enable zfs-import-cache
root #systemctl enable zfs-mount
root #systemctl enable zfs-import.target

Installing into the kernel directory (for static installs)

This example uses 9999, but just change it to the latest ~ or stable (when that happens) and you should be good. The only issue you may run into is having zfs and zfs-kmod out of sync with each other. Just try to avoid that :D

This will generate the needed files, and copy them into the kernel sources directory.

For versions of zfs < 0.8.0

root #env EXTRA_ECONF='--enable-linux-builtin' ebuild /var/db/repos/gentoo/sys-kernel/spl/spl-9999.ebuild clean configure
root #(cd /var/tmp/portage/sys-kernel/spl-9999/work/spl-9999/ && ./copy-builtin /usr/src/linux)
root #env EXTRA_ECONF='--with-spl=/usr/src/linux --enable-linux-builtin --with-spl-obj=/usr/src/linux' ebuild /var/db/repos/gentoo/sys-fs/zfs-kmod/zfs-kmod-9999.ebuild clean configure
root #(cd /var/tmp/portage/sys-fs/zfs-kmod-9999/work/zfs-kmod-9999/ && ./copy-builtin /usr/src/linux)

For versions of zfs >= 0.8.0

root #env EXTRA_ECONF='--enable-linux-builtin' ebuild /var/db/repos/gentoo/sys-fs/zfs-kmod/zfs-kmod-0.8.4.ebuild clean configure
root #(cd /var/tmp/portage/sys-fs/zfs-kmod-0.8.4/work/zfs-0.8.4/ && ./copy-builtin /usr/src/linux)

After this, you just need to edit the kernel config to enable CONFIG_SPL and CONFIG_ZFS and emerge the zfs binaries.

root #mkdir -p /etc/portage/profile
root #echo 'sys-fs/zfs -kernel-builtin' >> /etc/portage/profile/package.use.mask
root #echo 'sys-fs/zfs kernel-builtin' >> /etc/portage/package.use/zfs.conf
root #emerge --oneshot --verbose sys-fs/zfs

The echo commands only need to be run once, but the emerge needs to be run every time you install a new version of zfs.


ZFS includes already all programs to manage the hardware and the file systems, there are no additional tools needed.


ZFS supports the use of either block devices or files. Administration is the same in both cases, but for production use, the ZFS developers recommend the use of block devices (preferably whole disks). To take full advantage of block devices on Advanced Format disks, it is highly recommended to read the ZFS on Linux FAQ before creating your pool. To go through the different commands and scenarios we can use files in place of block devices.

The following commands create 2GB sparse image files in /var/lib/zfs_img/ that we use as our hard drives. This uses at most 8GB disk space, but in practice will use very little because only written areas are allocated:

root #mkdir /var/lib/zfs_img
root #truncate -s 2G /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img
root #truncate -s 2G /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img
root #truncate -s 2G /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs2.img
root #truncate -s 2G /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img
On pool export, all of the files will be released and the folder /var/lib/zfs_img can be deleted.


The program /usr/sbin/zpool is used with any operation on zpools.

Creating a zpool

One hard drive

Create a new zpool named zfs_test with one hard drive:

root #zpool create zfs_test /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img

The zpool will automatically be mounted, default is the root file system aka /zfs_test

root #zpool status

To delete a zpool use this command:

root #zpool destroy zfs_test
ZFS will not ask if you are sure.
Two hard drives (MIRROR)

In ZFS you can have several hard drives in a MIRROR, where equal copies exist on each storage. This increases the performance and redundancy. To create a new zpool named zfs_test with two hard drives as MIRROR:

root #zpool create zfs_test mirror /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img
Of the two hard drives, only 2GB are effective useable so total_space * 1/n.
root #zpool status

To delete the zpool:

root #zpool destroy zfs_test
Three hard drives (RAIDZ1)

RAIDZ1 is the equivalent to RAID5, where data is written to the first two drives and a parity onto the third. You need at least three hard drives, one can fail and the zpool is still ONLINE but the faulty drive should be replaced as soon as possible.

To create a pool with RAIDZ1 and three hard drives:

root #zpool create zfs_test raidz1 /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs2.img
Of the three hard drives, only 4GB are effective useable so total_space * (1-1/n).
root #zpool status

To delete the zpool:

root #zpool destroy zfs_test
Four hard drives (RAIDZ2)

RAIDZ2 is the equivalent to RAID6, where data is written to the first two drives and a parity onto the next two. You need at least four hard drives, two can fail and the zpool is still ONLINE but the faulty drives should be replaced as soon as possible.

To create a pool with RAIDZ2 and four hard drives:

root #zpool create zfs_test raidz2 /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs2.img /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img
Of the four hard drives, only 4GB are effectively useable so total_space * (1-2/n).
root #zpool status

To delete the zpool:

root #zpool destroy zfs_test
Four hard drives (STRIPED MIRROR)

A STRIPED MIRROR is the equivalent to RAID10, where data is striped across sets of disks then the striped data is mirrored. You need at least four hard drives; this configuration provides redundancy and an increase in read speed. You can lose all disks but one per mirror.

To create a STRIPED MIRRORED pool with four hard drives:

root #zpool create zfs_test mirror /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img mirror /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs2.img /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img
Of the four hard drives, only 4GB are useable so total_space * (1-2/n).
root #zpool status
 pool: zfs_test
state: ONLINE
scan: none requested
	NAME                          STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
	zfs_test                      ONLINE       0     0     0
	  mirror-0                    ONLINE       0     0     0
	    /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img ONLINE       0     0     0
	    /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img ONLINE       0     0     0
	  mirror-1                    ONLINE       0     0     0
	    /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs2.img ONLINE       0     0     0
	    /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img ONLINE       0     0     0
errors: No known data errors

To delete the zpool:

root #zpool destroy zfs_test

Import/Export zpool

To import (mount) the zpool named zfs_test use this command:

root #zpool import zfs_test

The root mountpoint of zfs_test is a property and can be changed the same way as for volumes. To import (mount) the zpool named zfs_test root on /mnt/gentoo, use this command:

root #zpool import -R /mnt/gentoo zfs_test
ZFS will automatically search on the hard drives for the zpool named zfs_test.

To search for all zpools available in the system issue the command:

root #zpool import

To export (unmount) an existing zpool named zfs_test into the file system, you can use the following command:

root #zpool export zfs_test

Spares/Replace vdev

You can add hot-spares into your zpool. In case a failure, those are already installed and available to replace faulty vdevs.

In this example, we use RAIDZ1 with three hard drives and a zpool named zfs_test:

root #zpool add zfs_test spare /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img
root #zpool status

The status of /dev/loop3 will stay AVAIL until it is set to be online, now we let /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img fail:

root #zpool offline zfs_test /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img
root #zpool status
  pool: zfs_test
 state: ONLINE
  scan: none requested
        NAME                           STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zfs_test                       ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz1-0                     ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs2.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
errors: No known data errors

We replace /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img with our spare /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img:

root #zpool replace zfs_test /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img
root #zpool status
  pool: zfs_test
 state: ONLINE
  scan: resilvered 62K in 0h0m with 0 errors on Sun Sep  1 15:41:41 2013
        NAME                             STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zfs_test                         ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz1-0                       ONLINE       0     0     0
            spare-0                      ONLINE       0     0     0
              /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
              /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img    ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs2.img    ONLINE       0     0     0
          /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img      INUSE     currently in use
errors: No known data errors

The original vdev will automatically get removed asynchronously. If this is not the case, the old vdev may need to be detached with the "zpool detach" command. Later you will see it leave the zpool status output:

root #zpool status
   pool: zfs_test
 state: ONLINE
  scan: resilvered 62K in 0h0m with 0 errors on Sun Sep  1 15:41:41 2013
        NAME                           STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zfs_test                       ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz1-0                     ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs2.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
errors: No known data errors
ZFS automatically resilvered onto /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs0.img and the zpool had no downtime.

Now start a manual scrub:

root #zpool scrub zfs_test
root #zpool status
  pool: zfs_test
 state: ONLINE
  scan: scrub repaired 0 in 0h0m with 0 errors on Sun Sep  1 15:57:31 2013
        NAME                           STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zfs_test                       ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz1-0                     ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs3.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs1.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /var/lib/zfs_img/zfs2.img  ONLINE       0     0     0
errors: No known data errors

Zpool version update

With every update of sys-fs/zfs, you are likely to also get a more recent ZFS version. Also the status of your zpools will indicate a warning that a new version is available and the zpools could be upgraded. To display the current version on a zpool:

root #zpool upgrade -v
This system supports ZFS pool feature flags.
The following features are supported:
async_destroy                         (read-only compatible)
     Destroy filesystems asynchronously.
empty_bpobj                           (read-only compatible)
     Snapshots use less space.
     LZ4 compression algorithm support.
The following legacy versions are also supported:
---  --------------------------------------------------------
 1   Initial ZFS version
 2   Ditto blocks (replicated metadata)
 3   Hot spares and double parity RAID-Z
 4   zpool history
 5   Compression using the gzip algorithm
 6   bootfs pool property
 7   Separate intent log devices
 8   Delegated administration
 9   refquota and refreservation properties
 10  Cache devices
 11  Improved scrub performance
 12  Snapshot properties
 13  snapused property
 14  passthrough-x aclinherit
 15  user/group space accounting
 16  stmf property support
 17  Triple-parity RAID-Z
 18  Snapshot user holds
 19  Log device removal
 20  Compression using zle (zero-length encoding)
 21  Deduplication
 22  Received properties
 23  Slim ZIL
 24  System attributes
 25  Improved scrub stats
 26  Improved snapshot deletion performance
 27  Improved snapshot creation performance
 28  Multiple vdev replacements
For more information on a particular version, including supported releases,
see the ZFS Administration Guide.
systems with a lower version installed will not be able to import a zpool of a higher version

To upgrade the version of zpool zfs_test:

root #zpool upgrade zfs_test

To upgrade the version of all zpools in the system:

root #zpool upgrade -a

Zpool tips/tricks

  • You cannot shrink a zpool and remove vdevs after its initial creation.
  • It is possible to add more vdevs to a MIRROR after its initial creation. Use the following command (/dev/loop0 is the first drive in the MIRROR):
root #zpool attach zfs_test /dev/loop0 /dev/loop2
  • More than 9 vdevs in one RAIDZ could cause performance regression. For example it is better to use 2xRAIDZ with each five vdevs rather than 1xRAIDZ with 10 vdevs in a zpool
  • RAIDZ1 and RAIDZ2 cannot be resized after intial creation (you may only add additional hot spares). You can, however, replace the hard drives with bigger ones (one at a time), e.g. replace 1T drives with 2T drives to double the available space in the zpool.
  • It is possible to mix MIRROR, RAIDZ1 and RAIDZ2 in a zpool. For example to add two more vdevs in a MIRROR in a zpool with RAIDZ1 named zfs_test, use:
root #zpool add -f zfs_test mirror /dev/loop4 /dev/loop5
This needs the -f option.
  • It is possible to restore a destroyed zpool, by reimporting it straight after the accident happened:
root #zpool import -D
  pool: zfs_test
    id: 12744221975042547640
action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier.
The option -D searches on all hard drives for existing zpools.


The program /usr/sbin/zfs is used for any operation regarding volumes. To control the size of a volume you can set quota and you can reserve a certain amount of storage within a zpool. By default zpool uses the full storage size.

Create volumes

We use our zpool zfs_test to create a new volume called volume1:

root #zfs create zfs_test/volume1

The volume will be mounted automatically as /zfs_test/volumes1/

root #zfs list

Mount/umount volumes

Volumes can be mounted with the following command, the mountpoint is defined by the property mountpoint of the volume:

root #zfs mount zfs_test/volume1

To unmount the volume:

root #zfs unmount zfs_test/volume1

The folder /zfs_test/volume1 stays without the volume behind it. If you write data to it and then try to mount the volume again, you will see the following error message:

cannot mount '/zfs_test/volume1': directory is not empty

Remove volumes

To remove volumes volume1 from zpool zfs_test:

root #zfs destroy zfs_test/volume1
root #zfs list
You cannot destroy a volume if any snapshots of it exist.


Properties for volumes are inherited from the zpool. So you can either change the property on the zpool for all volumes or specifically per individual volume or a mix of both.

To set a property for a volume:

root #zfs set <property> zfs_test/volume1

To show the setting for a particular property on a volume:

root #zfs get <property> zfs_test/volume1
The properties are used on a volume e.g. compression, the higher is the version of this volume

You can get a list of all properties set on any zpool with the following command:

root #zfs get all

This is a partial list of properties that can be set on either zpools or volumes, for a full list see man zfs:

Property Value Function
quota= 20m,none set a quota of 20MB for the volume.
reservation= 20m,none reserves 20MB for the volume within it's zpool.
compression= zle,gzip,on,off uses the given compression method or the default method for compression which should be gzip.
sharenfs= on,off,ro,nfsoptions shares the volume via NFS.
exec= on,off controls if programs can be executed on the volume.
setuid= on,off controls if SUID or GUID can be set on the volume.
readonly= on,off sets read only atribute to on/off.
atime= on,off update access times for files in the volume.
dedup= on,off sets deduplication on or off.
mountpoint= none,path sets the mountpoint for the volume below the zpool or elsewhere in the file system, a mountpoint set to none prevents the volume from being mounted.

Set mountpoint

Set the mountpoint for a volume, use the following command:

root #zfs set mountpoint=/mnt/data zfs_test/volume1

The volume will be automatically moved to /mnt/data

NFS volume share

Activate NFS share on volume:

root #zfs set sharenfs=on zfs_test/volume2
root #exportfs

Per default the volume is shared using the exportfs command in the following manner. See exportfs(8) and exports(5) for more information.

CODE sharenfs default options
/usr/sbin/exportfs -i -o sec=sys,rw,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash,mountpoint *:<mountpoint of dataset>

Otherwise, the command is invoked with options equivalent to the contents of this property:

root #zfs set sharenfs="no_root_squash,rw=@" zfs_test/volume2
root #exportfs

To stop sharing the volume:

root #zfs set sharenfs=off zfs_test/volume2
root #exportfs


Snapshots are volumes which have no initial size and save changes made to another volume. With increasing changes between the snapshot and the original volume it grows in size.


To create a snapshot of a volume, use the following command:

root #zfs snapshot zfs_test/volume1@22082011
volume1@22082011 is the full name of the snapshot, everything after the @ symbol can be any alphanumeric combination.

Every time a file in volume1 changes, the old data of the file will be linked into the snapshot.


List all available snapshots:

root #zfs list -t snapshot -o name,creation

To rollback a full volume to a previous state:

root #zfs rollback zfs_test/volume1@21082011
If there are other snapshots in between, then you have to use the -r option. This would remove all snapshots between the one you want to rollback and the original volume.

ZFS can clone snapshots to new volumes, so you can access the files from previous states individually:

root #zfs clone zfs_test/volume1@21082011 zfs_test/volume1_restore

In the folder /zfs_test/volume1_restore can now be worked on in the version of a previous state


Remove snapshots of a volume with the following command:

root #zfs destroy zfs_test/volume1@21082011



Start a scrubbing for zpool zfs_test:

root #zpool scrub zfs_test
This might take some time and is quite I/O intensive.

Log files

To check the history of commands that were executed:

root #zpool history

Monitor I/O

Monitor I/O activity on all zpools (refreshes every 6 seconds):

root #zpool iostat 6

ZFS root

To boot from a ZFS volume as the root filesystem requires a ZFS capable kernel and an initial ramdisk (initramfs) which has the ZFS userspace utilities. The easiest way to set this up is as follows.

First, make sure to have compiled a kernel with ZFS support and used make install to copy it to /boot/ and make modules_install to make the modules available at boot time.

Install and configure genkernel.

root #emerge --ask sys-kernel/genkernel
root #genkernel initramfs --zfs

Install a bootloader, for example GRUB2.

root #emerge --ask sys-boot/grub:2

Configure grub to use ZFS, and which volume to boot from.

FILE /etc/default/grubSpecify root device
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="dozfs root=ZFS=mypool/myvolume"

Finally, install grub to your boot device and create the grub configuration.

root #grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg


  • Swap: On systems with extremely high memory pressure, using a zvol for swap can result in lockup, regardless of how much swap is still available. This issue is currently being investigated in [1]. Please check the current ZOL documentation on swap at github"
  • Memory fragmentation: Memory fragmentation on Linux can cause memory allocations to consume more memory than is actually measured, which means that actual ARC memory usage can exceed zfs_arc_max by a constant factor. This effect will be dramatically reduced once zfsonlinux/zfs#75 is fixed. Recent versions of ZFS on Linux include the arcstats.py script which allows you to monitor ARC usage.

See also

  • Btrfs — a copy-on-write (CoW) filesystem for Linux aimed at implementing advanced features while focusing on fault tolerance, self-healing properties, and easy administration.
  • User:Bugalo/Dell_XPS_15_7590 - for an example of configuring a new system with Gentoo to have ZFS root with native compression and encryption, through the use of an Ubuntu live DVD as the install medium

External resources