This page refers to the current packaging of Wine in app-emulation/wine. For information about the upcoming packaging, app-emulation/wine-* click here.
Wine (Wine Is Not an Emulator) is an application that allows Windows software to run on Linux. This article deals with installing, configuring, and maintaining a general purpose Wine environment on Gentoo.
- 1 Installation
- 2 Configuration
- 3 Troubleshooting
- 4 Packaging notes
- 5 See also
- 6 External resources
It is likely for many users to desire Wine to support as much media as possible, in these cases be sure to enable the related flags.
USE flags for app-emulation/wine-vanilla Free implementation of Windows(tm) on Unix, without external patchsets
||Enable ISDN support via CAPI||local|
||Bypass strip-flags; use at your own peril||local|
||Pull in games-emulation/dosbox to run DOS applications||local|
||Support for configuring and customizing font access via media-libs/fontconfig||global|
||Add support for the Gecko engine when using iexplore||local|
||Add digital camera support||global|
||Use GSSAPI (Kerberos SSP support)||local|
||Use media-libs/gstreamer to provide DirectShow functionality;||local|
||Add support for .NET using Wine's Mono add-on||local|
||Add support for reading mp3 files||global|
||Use libnetapi from net-fs/samba to support Windows networks in netapi32.dll||local|
||Add ODBC Support (Open DataBase Connectivity)||global|
||Add support for the Open Audio Library||global|
||Enable OpenCL support||local|
||Add support for OpenGL in bitmaps using libOSMesa||local|
||Support packet capture software (e.g. wireshark)||local|
||Install helpers written in perl (winedump/winemaker)||local|
||Run prelink on DLLs during build; For versions before wine-1.7.55 or hardened, do not disable if you do not know what this means as it can break things at runtime||local|
||Pull in sys-auth/rtkit for low-latency pulseaudio support||local|
||Use Wine to open and run .EXE and .MSI files||local|
||Add support for NTLM auth. see http://wiki.winehq.org/NtlmAuthSetupGuide and http://wiki.winehq.org/NtlmSigningAndSealing||local|
||Add support for scanner hardware (e.g. build the sane frontend in kdegraphics)||global|
||Add support for gamepad detection using SDL||local|
||!!internal use only!! Security Enhanced Linux support, this must be set by the selinux profile or breakage will occur||global|
||Add threads support for various packages. Usually pthreads||global|
||Use virtual/libudev to provide plug and play support||local|
||Enable storage management support (automounting, volume monitoring, etc)||global|
||Enable support for video4linux (using linux-headers or userspace libv4l libraries)||global|
||Use app-emulation/vkd3d to provide Direct3D 12 support||local|
||Enable Vulkan drivers||local|
||Enable support for the Xorg composite extension||global|
||Add support for querying multi-monitor screen geometry through the Xinerama API||global|
||Add support for XML files||global|
Users may also find information about specific USE flags required to run their applications here.
Traditionally, live (9999) ebuilds support setting the repository commit as an environmental variable. This poses some issues with an ebuild that has multiple upstream repositories. To work around this issue, Wine's live ebuilds support three environmental variables for individually configuring the commit that each repository checks out. The WineHQ repository is controlled by WINE_COMMIT, Wine-Staging repository by STAGING_COMMIT, and Ixit's Gallium Nine repository by D3D9_COMMIT. The *_COMMIT variables may contain either a commit hash from that repository or a git tag from that repository.
For example, one could select the WineHQ tag "wine-2.0-rc5" to emerge version 2.0 RC 5:
WINE_COMMIT="wine-2.0-rc5" emerge -av '=app-emulation/wine-9999'
One could additionally pin Wine-Staging to the same release by finding the appropriate tag, "v2.0-rc5" and augmenting the previous as follows:
WINE_COMMIT="wine-2.0-rc5" STAGING_COMMIT="v2.0-rc5" emerge -av '=app-emulation/wine-9999'
Other environmental variables, which affect Wine at runtime, are discussed below.
Enable the USE flags of choice and emerge the package:
emerge --ask app-emulation/wine
To install the latest development version of Wine the package needs to be individually unmasked:
echo "app-emulation/wine" >> /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords
The above command does not apply to systems that have ~amd64 defined globally in the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable located in /etc/portage/make.conf
To prevent Wine from adding menu entries and desktop links, the following .dll override can be used:
# Prevent Wine from adding menu entries and desktop links. export WINEDLLOVERRIDES="winemenubuilder.exe=d"
Previously added entries can be deleted by removing the corresponding files from ~/.local/share/applications. See Wine FAQ for examples.
Tools and interfaces
Tools such as graphical interfaces for Wine can be helpful for users who want an alternative to the command-line:
- app-emulation/q4wine – Qt4 GUI configuration tool for Wine.
- app-emulation/wine-doors – Wine-doors is a package manager for Wine.
- app-emulation/winetricks – Easy way to install DLLs needed to work around problems in Wine.
- app-emulation/playonlinux – Set of scripts to easily install and use Windows games and software.
Runtime environment variables
The environment variables of the shell that wine is started from are made accessible to the Windows/DOS processes. Some very useful Wine-specific variables include, but are not limited to, WINEPREFIX, WINEARCH, and WINEDEBUG.
See the man wine and man wineserver manual entries for more detailed information concerning Wine's environment variables.
To create a Wine prefix in a custom location without affecting the default:
The above would create the Windows installation in the home path of the user, under /home/<user>/wine_testi.
Once a prefix has been created, the 'bitness' (arch) can not be changed. As such, the WINEARCH is not required to be defined for every command, unlike the WINEPREFIX variable. When using a non-default prefix without exporting it, the prefix and path need to be defined for each command.
To create a 32-bit installation instead of the default (when built) 64-bit:
WINEARCH="win32" WINEPREFIX="~/wine_testi" wineboot
The Wine executable used could be anything that runs Wine, such as winecfg, which often makes sense while creating a clean, new prefix.
To use 32-bit windows programs on a 64-bit linux-system you must set the USE-Flags abi_x86_32 and abi_x86_64 for wine and all packages needed by wine (can be do automaticaly). I have set this flags in make.conf and remove it for some packages in package.use which won't be emerged with both flags.
Essential in finding out why an application is misbehaving when the basic terminal output or messages boxes are not enough. See Debugging for examples.
When a user encounters a problem with an application, they should try the latest development version to see if the unwanted behavior still exists. If Wine has been built with options such as
--hash-style=both, the Wine developers will likely be unable to help with the issue, and reports including output from such builds should not be reported to the Wine Bugzilla.
custom-cflags USE flag should be enabled for debugging builds.
For more directions on reporting bugs, see Bugzilla and Bugs at wiki.winehq.
Users may find additional support in the #gentoo-wine channel on Freenode.
Version 1.9.24 was skipped due to a lack of a staging release.
Wine-Staging in >=wine-2.0
Starting with the release of =wine-2.0, the "staging" and related USE flags will not be available for stable branch wine ebuilds. This means that wine-2.0* will not have staging available, but versions >=wine-2.1 and <wine-3.0 will. Through a special arrangement with the Wine-Staging developers, staging tarballs were created for the previous stable branch, but after some discussion, it was decided to terminate this going forward because Wine-Staging, by definition and mission, is staging quality, not stable. Though Wine-Staging released a tarball for =wine-2.0, it will not be packaged, to provide consistency with the Gentoo stable packaging going forward.
Upcoming packaging changes
Soon, a rework of the wine package will be released for Gentoo which allows multiple installations in parallel. What this means for users is that if they have an application that only works on a particular version of wine, they can install that version along side any other version. Additionally, wine will be split into several packages. Currently, the intention is to have "wine-vanilla," "wine-staging," and "wine-d3d9" packages so that users can also use multiple patchsets in parallel. Management of the default wine installation will be handled with an eselect module.
- Game emulators – contains lists of game emulators available through Gentoo.