nouveau/ja

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Warning: Display title "nouveau/ja" overrides earlier display title "Nouveau".

Resources

nouveau NVIDIA グラフィックカード向けのオープンソースドライバ

制限

大部分がプロプライエタリであるハードウェアを扱うオープンソースプロジェクトである以上、クローズドソースの nvidia-drivers には存在しない Nouveau 固有の制限がいくつか存在します。とはいえ、Nouveau は常に成長を続けているので、これらの制限は時が経てば変わる可能性があります。

インストール

カーネル

次のカーネルオプションを有効にします:

KERNEL nouveau を有効化する
Device Drivers  --->
   Graphics support  --->
      <*> Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) --->
         <*> Enable legacy fbdev support for your modesetting driver
      <M/*> Nouveau (NVIDIA) cards

ファームウェア

Kepler シリーズ(GeForce 600番台)以降では、起動時にファームウェアを読み込む必要があるかもしれません。必要なファームウェアをカーネルに組み込むことをお勧めします。systemd を使うシステムではこれがデフォルトです。

どのファームウェアが必要なのかを確認するために、upstream の コードネーム一覧を参照してください。

ファームウェアをカーネルに組み込む方法については Linux firmware を参照してください。

ドライバー

Portage uses the USE_EXPAND variable called VIDEO_CARDS to enable support for various graphics cards in packages. Setting VIDEO_CARDS to appropriate value(s) will pull in the correct driver(s):

FILE /etc/portage/make.confSet VIDEO_CARDS to nouveau
VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"

Substitute the name of the driver(s) to be used. Common choices include nouveau, nvidia, radeon, and intel. After setting or altering VIDEO_CARDS values remember to update the system using the following command so the changes take effect:

root #emerge --ask --changed-use --deep @world


udev

NVIDIA のプロプライエタリドライバが既にインストールされている場合、udev のルールファイルが /lib/udev/rules.d/99-nvidia.rules にインストールされているはずです。これを無効化せずに nouveau ドライバを使おうとすると、10ms ごとに出力される次のようなメッセージで X11 のログファイルが埋まってしまいます。

FILE /var/log/Xorg.0.lognvidia-drivers 向けの古い udev ルールを残した結果
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): EDID vendor "SAM", prod id 430
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): Using hsync ranges from config file
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): Using vrefresh ranges from config file
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): Printing DDC gathered Modelines:
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): Modeline "1600x1200"x0.0  162.00  1600 1664 1856 2160  1200 1201 1204 1250 +hsync +vsync (75.0 kHz eP)
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): Modeline "800x600"x0.0   40.00  800 840 968 1056  600 601 605 628 +hsync +vsync (37.9 kHz e)
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): Modeline "800x600"x0.0   36.00  800 824 896 1024  600 601 603 625 +hsync +vsync (35.2 kHz e)
 [...]
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): Modeline "1152x864"x0.0  108.00  1152 1216 1344 1600  864 865 868 900 +hsync +vsync (67.5 kHz e)
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): Modeline "1280x1024"x0.0  108.00  1280 1328 1440 1688  1024 1025 1028 1066 +hsync +vsync (64.0 kHz e)
 [   180.669] (II) NOUVEAU(0): Modeline "1280x960"x0.0  108.00  1280 1376 1488 1800  960 961 964 1000 +hsync +vsync (60.0 kHz e)
 [   180.669] removing GPU device /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:01.0/0000:01:00.0/drm/card2 /dev/dri/card2
 

x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers パッケージを削除せずにこれを防ぐには、udev のルールファイル /lib/udev/rules.d/99-nvidia.rules を削除・移動・名前変更して、udev に読み込まれないようにします。詳しくは udev の高度な設定 を参照してください。ただし nvidia-drivers が更新されるとこのファイルは再びインストールされるため、nvidia-drivers の削除を検討してください。

設定

パーミッション

If the acl USE flag is enabled globally and ConsoleKit is being used (default for desktop profiles) permissions to video cards will be handled automatically. It is possible to check the permissions using getfacl:

user $getfacl /dev/dri/card0 | grep larry
user:larry:rw-

A broader solution is to add the user(s) needing access the video card to the video group:

root #gpasswd -a larry video

Note that users will be able to run X without permission to the DRI subsystem, but acceleration will be disabled.

xorg.conf

The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit X.Org's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as displays, keyboards, and mice.

However, the main configuration file of the X server is the xorg.conf file.

Limitations

Some of the current issues or draw-backs compared to the closed-source x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers are stated below:

  • Performance (especially 3D performance) on the same card/chipset may be significantly worse than using nvidia-drivers.
  • Attempts to run at higher refresh rates (i.e. above 60 Hz) may fail.
  • Using advanced features from various NVIDIA cards (e.g. multiple-display capabilities of Quadro cards without SLI) may not function correctly.


Troubleshooting

Multi-monitor problems

When the screen freezes often with possible EDID probes while using dual monitors/displays, try adding video=VGA-1:e or video=VGA-1:d (enable or disable respectively) to the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT variable in the /etc/default/grub file. With GRUB Legacy, edit the grub.cfg file directly and add it as command line options. In either case, make sure to substitute the name of the monitor listed within dmesg or /var/log/Xorg.0.log (i.e. CRT-1, VGA-1, LVDS-1, DVI-1, ...)

For instance, on a Dell Inspiron 8100 laptop with a connected external display connected via the laptop's external VGA port, a possible command line is: video=LVDS-1:1280x1024@60 video=VGA-1:1280x1024@60. The EDID (DRM) probe on the external VGA connected display is still causing freezing during nouveau/DRM load for the author, but at least it's usable if the display is connected after GRUB is loaded and prior to the nouveau/DRM modules loading. And with the prior mentioned command line LVDS/VGA resolutions, the displays are cloned and centred with somewhat correct resolutions for cloned displays.

NVIDIA Optimus

When using a laptop with NVIDIA's Optimus technology (usually found in laptops built in 2010 and later), everything will be passed through the integrated graphics controller (usually Intel) before it gets to the discrete video card (NVIDIA), which can cause a lot of otherwise unexplained problems when enabled. There are a few ways to handle this, but the simplest is to disable Optimus through the BIOS (normally accessed by pressing F12 during boot). This will result in increased power consumption (decreased battery life, increased running temperature), as the NVIDIA card will now be handling all of the work all of the time.

See also

External resources