Gentoo Linux mips Manual: Trabalhando com o Portage

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This page is a translated version of the page Handbook:MIPS/Full/Portage and the translation is 50% complete.

Arquivos do portage

Diretivas de configuração

Portage comes with a default configuration stored in /usr/share/portage/config/make.globals. All Portage configuration is handled through variables. What variables portage listens to and what they mean are described later.

Since many configuration directives differ between architectures, Portage also has default configuration files which are part of the system profile. This profile is pointed to by the /etc/portage/make.profile symlink; Portage's configurations are set in the make.defaults files of the profile and all parent profiles. We'll explain more about profiles and the /etc/portage/make.profile directory later on.

When changing a configuration variable, do not alter /usr/share/portage/config/make.globals or make.defaults. Instead use /etc/portage/make.conf which has precedence over the previous files. For more information, read the /usr/share/portage/config/make.conf.example. As the name implies, this is merely an example file - Portage does not read in this file.

It is also possible to define a Portage configuration variable as an environment variable, but we don't recommend this.

Profile-specific information

We've already encountered the /etc/portage/make.profile directory. Well, this is not exactly a directory but a symbolic link to a profile, by default one inside /var/db/repos/gentoo/profiles/ although one can create their own profiles elsewhere and point to them. The profile this symlink points to is the profile to which the system adheres.

A profile contains architecture-specific information for Portage, such as a list of packages that belong to the system corresponding with that profile, a list of packages that don't work (or are masked-out) for that profile, etc.

User-specific configuration

When Portage's behavior needs to be changed regarding the installation of software, then the right set of files inside /etc/portage/ will need to be changed. It is highly recommended to use files within /etc/portage/ and highly discouraged to override the behavior through environment variables!

Within /etc/portage/ users can create the following files:

  • package.mask which lists the packages that Portage should never try to install
  • package.unmask which lists the packages Portage should be able to install even though the Gentoo developers highly discourage users from emerging them
  • package.accept_keywords which lists the packages Portage should be able to install even though the package hasn't been found suitable for the system or architecture (yet)
  • package.use which lists the USE flags to use for certain packages without having the entire system use those USE flags

These don't have to be files; they can also be directories that contain one file per package. More information about the /etc/portage/ directory and a full list of possible files that can be created can be found in the Portage man page:

user $man portage

Changing Portage file and directory locations

The previously mentioned configuration files cannot be stored elsewhere - Portage will always look for those configuration files at those exact locations. However, Portage uses many other locations for various purposes: build directory, source code storage, Gentoo repository location, ...

All these purposes have well-known default locations but can be altered to personal taste through /etc/portage/make.conf. The rest of this chapter explains what special-purpose locations Portage uses and how to alter their placement on the filesystem.

This document isn't meant to be used as a reference though. To get 100% coverage, please consult the Portage and make.conf man pages:

user $man portage
user $man make.conf

Storing files

Gentoo ebuild repository

The default location of the Gentoo ebuild repository is at /var/db/repos/gentoo. This is defined by the default repos.conf file found at /usr/share/portage/config/repos.conf. To modify the default, copy this file to /etc/portage/repos.conf/gentoo.conf and change the location setting. When storing the Gentoo ebuild repository elsewhere (by altering this variable), don't forget to change the /etc/portage/make.profile symbolic link accordingly.

After changing the location setting in /etc/portage/repos.conf/gentoo.conf, it is recommended to alter the following variables in /etc/portage/make.conf as well since they will not notice the location change. This is due to how Portage handles variables: PKGDIR, DISTDIR, and RPMDIR.

Pre-built binaries

Even though Portage doesn't use pre-built binaries by default, it has extensive support for them. When asking Portage to work with pre-built packages, it will look for them in /var/cache/binpkgs. This location is defined by the PKGDIR variable.

Source code

Application source code is stored in /var/cache/distfiles by default. This location is defined by the DISTDIR variable.

Portage database

Portage stores the state of the system (what packages are installed, what files belong to which package, ...) in /var/db/pkg.

Do not alter the system state files manually! It might break Portage's knowledge of the system.

Portage cache

The Portage cache (with modification times, virtuals, dependency tree information, ...) is stored in /var/cache/edb. This location really is a cache: users can clean it if they are not running any Portage-related application at that moment.

Building software

Temporary Portage files

Portage's temporary files are stored in /var/tmp/ by default. This is defined by the PORTAGE_TMPDIR variable.

Building directory

Portage creates specific build directories for each package it emerges inside /var/tmp/portage/. This location is defined by the PORTAGE_TMPDIR variable with portage/ appended.

Live filesystem location

By default Portage installs all files on the current filesystem (/), but this can be changed by setting the ROOT environment variable. This is useful when creating new build images.

Logging features

Ebuild logging

Portage can create per-ebuild log files, but only when the PORT_LOGDIR variable is set to a location that is writable by Portage (through the Portage user). By default this variable is unset. If PORT_LOGDIR is not set, then there will not be any build logs with the current logging system, though users may receive some logs from the new elog support.

If PORT_LOGDIR is not defined and elog is used, then build logs and any other logs saved by elog will be made available, as explained below.

Portage offers fine-grained control over logging through the use of elog:

  • PORTAGE_ELOG_CLASSES: This is where users can define what kinds of messages to be logged. This can be any space-separated combination of info, warn, error, log, and qa.
    • info: Logs "einfo" messages printed by an ebuild
    • warn: Logs "ewarn" messages printed by an ebuild
    • error: Logs "eerror" messages printed by an ebuild
    • log: Logs the "elog" messages found in some ebuilds
    • qa: Logs the "QA Notice" messages printed by an ebuild
  • PORTAGE_ELOG_SYSTEM: This selects the module(s) to process the log messages. If left empty, logging is disabled. Any space-separated combination of save, custom, syslog, mail, save_summary, and mail_summary can be used. At least one module must be used in order to use elog.
    • save: This saves one log per package in $PORT_LOGDIR/elog, or /var/log/portage/elog if $PORT_LOGDIR is not defined.
    • custom: Passes all messages to a user-defined command in $PORTAGE_ELOG_COMMAND; this will be discussed later.
    • syslog: Sends all messages to the installed system logger.
    • mail: Passes all messages to a user-defined mailserver in $PORTAGE_ELOG_MAILURI; this will be discussed later. The mail features of elog require >=portage-2.1.1.
    • save_summary: Similar to save, but it merges all messages in $PORT_LOGDIR/elog/summary.log, or /var/log/portage/elog/summary.log if $PORT_LOGDIR is not defined.
    • mail_summary: Similar to mail, but it sends all messages in a single mail when emerge exits.
  • PORTAGE_ELOG_COMMAND: This is only used when the custom module is enabled. Users can specify a command to process log messages. Note that the command can make use of two variables: ${PACKAGE} is the package name and version, while ${LOGFILE} is the absolute path to the logfile. For instance:
PORTAGE_ELOG_COMMAND="/path/to/logger -p '\${PACKAGE}' -f '\${LOGFILE}'"
  • PORTAGE_ELOG_MAILURI: This contains settings for the mail module such as address, user, password, mail server, and port number. The default setting is "root@localhost localhost". The following is an example for an SMTP server that requires username and password-based authentication on a particular port (the default is port 25):
PORTAGE_ELOG_MAILURI="user@some.domain username:password@smtp.some.domain:995"
  • PORTAGE_ELOG_MAILFROM: Allows the user to set the "from" address of log mails; defaults to "Portage" if unset.
  • PORTAGE_ELOG_MAILSUBJECT: Allows the user to create a subject line for log mails. Note that it can make use of two variables: ${PACKAGE} will display the package name and version, while ${HOST} is the fully qualified domain name of the host Portage is running on. For instance:
PORTAGE_ELOG_MAILSUBJECT="package \${PACKAGE} was merged on \${HOST} with some messages"
Users who used enotice with Portage-2.0.* must completely remove enotice, as it is incompatible with elog.

Configuração do portage

As noted previously, Portage is configurable through many variables which should be defined in /etc/portage/make.conf or one of the subdirectories of /etc/portage/. Please refer to the make.conf and portage man pages for more and complete information:

user $man make.conf
user $man portage

Build-specific options

Configure and compiler options

When Portage builds applications, it passes the contents of the following variables to the compiler and configure script:

Define the desired compiler flags for C and C++ compiling.
Defines the build host information for the application's configure script
Passed to the make command and is usually set to define the amount of parallelism used during the compilation. More information about the make options can be found in the make man page.

The USE variable is also used during configure and compilations but has been explained in great detail in previous chapters.

Merge options

When Portage has merged a newer version of a certain software title, it will remove the obsoleted files of the older version from the system. Portage gives the user a 5 second delay before unmerging the older version. These 5 seconds are defined by the CLEAN_DELAY variable.

It is possible to tell emerge to use certain options every time it is run by setting EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS. Some useful options would be --ask, --verbose, --tree, and so on.

Configuration file protection

Portage protected locations

Portage overwrites files provided by newer versions of a software title if the files aren't stored in a protected location. These protected locations are defined by the CONFIG_PROTECT variable and are generally configuration file locations. The directory listing is space-delimited.

A file that would be written in such a protected location is renamed and the user is warned about the presence of a newer version of the (presumable) configuration file.

To find out about the current CONFIG_PROTECT setting, use the emerge --info output:

user $emerge --info | grep 'CONFIG_PROTECT='

More information about Portage's configuration file protection is available in the CONFIGURATION FILES section of the emerge manpage:

user $man emerge

Excluding directories

To 'unprotect' certain subdirectories of protected locations users can use the CONFIG_PROTECT_MASK variable.

Download options

Server locations

When the requested information or data is not available on the system, Portage will retrieve it from the Internet. The server locations for the various information and data channels are defined by the following variables:

Defines a list of server locations which contain source code (distfiles).
Defines a particular server location containing prebuilt packages for the system.

A third setting involves the location of the rsync server which users use to update their local Gentoo repository. This is defined in the /etc/portage/repos.conf file (or a file inside that directory if it is defined as a directory):

Defines the type of server and defaults to rsync.
Defines a particular server which Portage uses to fetch the Gentoo repository.

The GENTOO_MIRRORS, sync-type, and sync-uri variables can be set automatically through the mirrorselect application. Of course, app-portage/mirrorselect needs to be installed first before it can be used. For more information, see mirrorselect's online help:

root #mirrorselect --help

If the environment requires the use of a proxy server, then the http_proxy, ftp_proxy, and RSYNC_PROXY variables can be declared.

Fetch commands

When Portage needs to fetch source code, it uses wget by default. This can be changed through the FETCHCOMMAND variable.

Portage is able to resume partially downloaded source code. It uses wget by default, but this can be altered through the RESUMECOMMAND variable.

Make sure that the FETCHCOMMAND and RESUMECOMMAND store the source code in the correct location. Inside the variables the \${URI} and \${DISTDIR} variables can be used to point to the source code location and distfiles location respectively.

It is also possible to define protocol-specific handlers with FETCHCOMMAND_HTTP, FETCHCOMMAND_FTP, RESUMECOMMAND_HTTP, RESUMECOMMAND_FTP, and so on.

Rsync settings

It is not possible to alter the rsync command used by Portage to update the Gentoo repository, but it is possible to set some variables related to the rsync command:

Sets a number of default variables used during sync, each space-separated. These shouldn't be changed unless you know exactly what you're doing. Note that certain absolutely required options will always be used even if PORTAGE_RSYNC_OPTS is empty.
Used to set additional options when syncing. Each option should be space separated:
This defines the number of seconds an rsync connection can idle before rsync sees the connection as timed-out. This variable defaults to 180 but dialup users or individuals with slow computers might want to set this to 300 or higher.
This points to a file listing the packages and/or categories rsync should ignore during the update process. In this case, it points to /etc/portage/rsync_excludes.
Reduces output to the screen.
Prints a complete filelist.
Displays a progress meter for each file.
Defines how many times rsync should try connecting to the mirror pointed to by the SYNC variable before bailing out. This variable defaults to 3.

For more information on these options and others, please read man rsync.

Gentoo configuration

Branch selection

It is possible to change the default branch with the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable. It defaults to the architecture's stable branch. More information on Gentoo's branches can be found in the next chapter.

Portage features

It is possible to activate certain portage features through the FEATURES variable. The Portage features have been discussed in previous chapters.

Portage behavior

Resource management

With the PORTAGE_NICENESS variable users can augment or reduce the nice value Portage will use while running. The PORTAGE_NICENESS value is added to the current nice value of Portage.

For more information about nice values, see Portage niceness and the nice man page:

user $man nice

Output behavior

The NOCOLOR variable, which defaults to false, defines if Portage should disable the use of colored output.

Usando um ramo


The ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable defines the system's software branch. This variable is set in the /etc/portage/make.conf file and is configured to the stable branch by default. In this instance the default value is mips.

FILE /etc/portage/make.confUsing the stable branch
# The following value is set by default, and does _not_ need explicitly defined.

For a more casual experience, and less risk of instability or other issues, the Handbook recommends staying on the stable software branch. Since this is Portage's default behavior no changes are necessary. System administrators who want to live dangerously or receive the latest possible software updates should read the Testing section.


Hic sunt dracones! Running software from the testing branch may incur stability issues, imperfect package handling (for instance wrong/missing dependencies), frequent ebuild revisions (resulting in a lot of compiling) or packages that are broken in another, often unexpected, manner. System administrators who are less comfortable with Gentoo or Linux in general should avoid the testing branch. As noted previously, the Handbook recommends staying with the stable, more thoroughly tested branch.

In cases where the system administrator would like to run a less-tested software stack, and in exchange receive 'bleeding edge' updates, the testing branch can be selected. To switch to the testing branch, set the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS value to ~mips.

FILE /etc/portage/make.confUsing the testing branch
# Instructing Portage to use the testing branch (~) for the amd64 architecture.

Any architecture supported by the Gentoo project can move to a testing branch by simply adding a ~ (tilde symbol) in front of the architecture's ACCEPT_KEYWORDS value.

The testing branch is exactly what one would expect - unstable. If a package is in testing, it means that the developers believe it is functional but has not been thoroughly tested. Systems using the testing branch may be the first to encounter bugs in the package. If bugs are discovered, please file a bug report to make the developer(s) aware.

When changing from the stable to the testing branch and performing a @world update, it is normal for many - sometimes hundreds - of packages to be updated to the latest available versions. Updates generally correspond to the upstream project's current release. Keep in mind that, after moving from stable to testing, it may prove a challenge to revert back to the stable branch. This is to be expected.

Mixing stable with testing


It is possible to instruct Portage to allow the testing branch for particular packages, but use the stable branch for the rest of the system. To achieve this, add the package category and name into the /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords file. It is also possible to create a directory (with the same name) and list the package in a file under the directory.

For instance, to use the testing branch for gnumeric:

FILE /etc/portage/package.accept_keywordsUse the testing branch for just the gnumeric application

Testing particular versions

To use a specific software version from the testing branch but not allow updates from the testing branch for subsequent versions, a specific version of the package can be defined in the package.accept_keywords file. To define a specific version, the = operator is utilized. It is also possible to enter a version range using the <=, <, > or >= operators.

In any case, if any package version information is defined, an operator must be used. Without version information, an operator cannot be used.

In the following Portage is instructed to allow the installation of a specific version of gnumeric, version 1.2.13, even if it is in the testing branch:

FILE /etc/portage/package.accept_keywordsAllow a specific version selection of the gnumeric package

Masked packages


Gentoo developers mask packages for good reason, therefore unmasking a package is generally unsupportable by Gentoo's support channels. For this reason, it is to be expected for support requests related to package.unmask and/or package.mask to be ignored or marked as WONTFIX. Please exercise due caution when unmasking packages.

For the next example, presume a package has been masked by the Gentoo developers. When attempting to install the package, Portage will output a message indicating the package has been masked and will generally provide a reason for its masking. Next presume a system administrator, despite the reason mentioned in the package.mask file (situated in /var/db/repos/gentoo/profiles/ by default) still desires to install the package.

To do so, the system administrator would add the target package version (usually this will be the exact same line from the package.mask file in the profile) to the /etc/portage/package.unmask location.

For instance, if =mail-client/mutt-2.2.9 is masked (poor doggy!), then it can be unmasked by adding the exact same line in the package.unmask location:

FILE /etc/portage/package.unmaskUnmasking a particular version of a package
If an entry in /var/db/repos/gentoo/profiles/package.mask contains a range of package versions, then it is necessary to unmask only the version(s) that are actually needed. Please read the previous section to learn how to specify versions using operators.


It is also possible to instruct Portage to not install a certain package or not update to a specific version of a package. This is called masking a package. To mask a package, add qualifiers as necessary to the /etc/portage/package.mask location (either in that file or in a file in this directory).

For instance, to prevent Portage from installing kernel sources newer than gentoo-sources-6.6.21, add the following line at the package.mask location:

FILE /etc/portage/package.maskMask sys-kernel/gentoo-sources for versions greater than 6.6.21


dispatch-conf is a tool that aids in merging the ._cfg0000_<name> files. ._cfg0000_<name> files are generated by Portage when it wants to overwrite a file in a directory protected by the CONFIG_PROTECT variable.

With dispatch-conf, users are able to merge updates to their configuration files while keeping track of all changes. dispatch-conf stores the differences between the configuration files as patches or by using the RCS revision system. This means that if someone makes a mistake when updating a config file, the administrator can revert the file to the previous version at any time.

When using dispatch-conf, users can ask to keep the configuration file as-is, use the new configuration file, edit the current one or merge the changes interactively. dispatch-conf also has some nice additional features:

  • Automatically merge configuration file updates that only contain updates to comments.
  • Automatically merge configuration files which only differ in the amount of whitespace.

Edit /etc/dispatch-conf.conf first and create the directory referenced by the archive-dir variable. Then, execute dispatch-conf:

root #dispatch-conf

When running dispatch-conf, each changed config file will be reviewed one at a time. Press u to update (replace) the current config file with the new one and continue to the next file. Press z to zap (delete) the new config file and continue to the next file. The n key will instruct dispatch-conf to skip to the next file. This can be done to delay a merge until a future time. Once all config files have been taken care of, dispatch-conf will exit. At any time, q can be used to exit the application as well.

For more information, check out the dispatch-conf man page. It describes how to interactively merge current and new config files, edit new config files, examine differences between files, and more.

user $man dispatch-conf


Another tool to merge configuration files is etc-update. Like dispatch-conf, it does provide an interactive merging setup and can also auto-merge trivial changes.

It should be noted that etc-update is an older and largely unmaintained utility. It is not as simple to use as dispatch-conf, nor as fully featured. It is imperative to note it does not backup old versions of configuration files. Once a file is updated, the old version is gone forever.

When possible, it is strongly recommended to use dispatch-conf (see the previous section) instead of etc-update.
root #etc-update

After merging the straightforward changes, a list of protected files will be provided that have an update waiting. At the bottom the possible options are shown:

CODE Options presented by etc-update
Please select a file to edit by entering the corresponding number.
              (-1 to exit) (-3 to auto merge all remaining files)
                           (-5 to auto-merge AND not use 'mv -i'):

When entering -1, etc-update will exit and discontinue any other changes. With -3 or -5, all listed configuration files will be overwritten with the newer versions. It is therefore very important to first select the configuration files that should not be automatically updated. This is simply a matter of entering the number listed to the left of that configuration file.

As an example, we select the configuration file /etc/pear.conf:

CODE Updating a specific configuration file
Beginning of differences between /etc/pear.conf and /etc/._cfg0000_pear.conf
End of differences between /etc/pear.conf and /etc/._cfg0000_pear.conf
1) Replace original with update
2) Delete update, keeping original as is
3) Interactively merge original with update
4) Show differences again

The differences between the two files are shown. If the updated configuration file can be used without problems, enter 1. If the updated configuration file isn't necessary, or doesn't provide any new or useful information, enter 2. If the current configuration file has to be interactively updated, enter 3.

There is no point in further elaborating the interactive merging here. For completeness sake, we will list the possible commands that can be used while interactively merging the two files. Users are greeted with two lines (the original one, and the proposed new one) and a prompt at which the user can enter one of the following commands:

CODE Commands available for the interactive merging
ed:     Edit then use both versions, each decorated with a header.
eb:     Edit then use both versions.
el:     Edit then use the left version.
er:     Edit then use the right version.
e:      Edit a new version.
l:      Use the left version.
r:      Use the right version.
s:      Silently include common lines.
v:      Verbosely include common lines.
q:      Quit.

After having finished updating the important configuration files, users can then automatically update all the other configuration files. etc-update will exit if it doesn't find any more updateable configuration files.


With quickpkg users can create archives of the packages that are already merged on the system. These archives can be used as prebuilt packages. Running quickpkg is straightforward: just add the names of the packages to archive.

For instance, to archive curl, orage, and procps:

root #quickpkg curl orage procps

The prebuilt packages will be stored in $PKGDIR (/var/cache/binpkgs/ by default). These packages are placed in $PKGDIR/CATEGORY.

Usando um subconjunto da árvore do portage

Excluindo pacotes e categorias

It is possible to selectively update certain categories/packages and ignore the other categories/packages. This can be achieved by having rsync exclude categories/packages during the emerge --sync step.

In order for this method to work, manifest verification must be disabled. This will reduce the security of the repo. To disable the verification, either disable the rsync-verify USE flag on the sys-apps/portage package or set sync-rsync-verify-metamanifest=no (see man 5 portage) in the repos.conf entry of the Gentoo ebuild repository.

Define the name of the file that contains the exclude patterns in the PORTAGE_RSYNC_EXTRA_OPTS variable in /etc/portage/make.conf:

FILE /etc/portage/make.confDefining the exclude file
FILE /etc/portage/rsync_excludesExcluding all games
Excluding parts of ebuild repositories, especially the Gentoo ebuild repo, may lead to dependency issues! New, allowed packages might depend on new but excluded packages. Exclusions are unsupportable, proceed with this risk in mind.

Adicionando ebuilds não oficiais

Creating a custom ebuild repository

Manual creation

It is possible to instruct Portage to use ebuilds that are not officially available through the Gentoo ebuild repository. In order to do so, create a new directory (for instance /var/db/repos/localrepo) in which to store the 3rd party ebuilds. This new repository will require the same directory structure as the official Gentoo repository.

root #mkdir -p /var/db/repos/localrepo/{metadata,profiles}
root #chown -R portage:portage /var/db/repos/localrepo

Next, pick a sensible name for the repository. The next example uses "localrepo" as the name:

root #echo 'localrepo' > /var/db/repos/localrepo/profiles/repo_name

Then define the EAPI used for the profiles within the repository:

root #echo '8' > /var/db/repos/localrepo/profiles/eapi

Tell Portage that the repository master is the main Gentoo ebuild repo, and that the local repository should not be automatically synchronized (as it is not backed by an external source such as an rsync server, git mirror, or other repository type):

FILE /var/db/repos/localrepo/metadata/layout.conf
masters = gentoo
auto-sync = false
thin-manifests = true
sign-manifests = false

Finally, enable the repository on the local system by creating a repository configuration file inside /etc/portage/repos.conf. This will inform Portage of where the custom local repository can be found:

FILE /etc/portage/repos.conf/localrepo.conf
location = /var/db/repos/localrepo

Optional: Creating a repo using eselect repository

Alternatively, a custom ebuild repository can be quickly created using the eselect repository module (from app-eselect/eselect-repository). In the following example, substitute localrepo with a name of choice:

root #eselect repository create localrepo
Adding localrepo to /etc/portage/repos.conf/eselect-repo.conf ...
Repository <ebuild_repository_name> created and added

A bare repository named "localrepo" will be made available at /var/db/repos/localrepo.

Working with multiple repositories

For those desiring to develop several ebuild repos, test packages before they hit the Gentoo repository, or who want to use unofficial ebuilds from various sources, the app-eselect/eselect-repository package also provides tooling to aid in keeping repositories up to date. See also eselect repository article.

Adding a repo using eselect repository

For instance, to enable the GURU repository:

root #eselect repository enable guru
Updating of repositories added with this methods will occur automatically on each sync:
root #emerge --sync

Non-Portage maintained software

Using Portage with self-maintained software

Sometimes users want to configure, install, and maintain software individually without having Portage automate the process, even though Portage can provide the software titles. Known cases are packages like kernel sources and Nvidia drivers. It is possible to configure Portage so it knows that a certain package is manually installed on the system (and thus take this information into account when calculating dependencies). This process is called injecting and is supported by Portage through the /etc/portage/profile/package.provided file.

For instance, to inform Portage about gentoo-sources-6.6.21 which has been installed manually, add the following line to /etc/portage/profile/package.provided:

FILE /etc/portage/profile/package.providedMarking gentoo-sources-6.6.21 as manually installed
This is a file that uses versions without an = operator.


For most readers, the information received thus far is sufficient for all their Linux operations. But Portage is capable of much more; many of its features are for advanced customization purposes or are only applicable in specific corner cases.

Of course, with lots of flexibility comes a huge list of potential cases. It will not be possible to document them all here. Instead, the goal is to focus on some generic issues which can then be augmented to fit a particular niche. More tweaks and tips such as these can be found across the Gentoo wiki.

Most, if not all, of these additional features can be easily found by digging through the manual pages that are provided with Portage:

user $man portage
user $man make.conf

Finally, know that these are advanced features which, if not configured correctly, can make debugging and troubleshooting much more difficult. Be sure any of these sorts of customization is explicitly mentioned when opening a bug report.

Per-package environment variables

Usando /etc/portage/env

By default, package builds will use the environment variables defined in /etc/portage/make.conf, such as CFLAGS, MAKEOPTS and others. In some cases, it is beneficial to provide different variables for specific packages. To do so, Portage supports the use of the /etc/portage/env directory and /etc/portage/package.env file.

The /etc/portage/package.env file contains a list of packages for which deviating environment variables are needed as well as a specific identifier that indicates to Portage which identifier file to apply. The identifier name is free format. Portage will look for a file with the exactly same case-sensitive name as the identifier. See the following example for more detail.

Example: Using debugging for specific packages

As an example, to enable debugging for the media-video/mplayer package.

Set the debugging variables in a file called /etc/portage/env/debug-cflags. The filename is arbitrarily chosen, but of course the name reflects the purpose of the file, which should make it obvious if reviewing later why the file exists. The /etc/portage/env directory will need created if it does not yet exist:

root #mkdir /etc/portage/env
FILE /etc/portage/env/debug-cflagsSet specific variables for debugging
# Add -ggdb to CFLAGS for debugging 
CFLAGS="-O2 -ggdb -pipe"

Next, the media-video/mplayer package is 'tagged' to use the new debug identifier in the package.env file:

FILE /etc/portage/package.envUse the debug-cflags identifier for the mplayer package
media-video/mplayer debug-cflags

Hooking into the emerge process

Using /etc/portage/bashrc and affiliated files

When Portage works with ebuilds, it uses a bash environment in which it calls the various build functions (like src_prepare, src_configure, pkg_postinst, etc.). Portage allows system administrators to set up a specific bash environment.

The advantage of using a specific bash environment is that it allows for hooks into the emerge process during each step it performs. This can be done for every emerge (through /etc/portage/bashrc) or by using per-package environments (through /etc/portage/env as discussed earlier).

To hook in the process, the bash environment can listen to the variables EBUILD_PHASE, CATEGORY as well as the variables that are always available during ebuild development (such as P, PF, ...). Based on the values of these variables additional steps and/or functions can be executed.

Example: Updating the file database

In this example, the /etc/portage/bashrc file will be used to call some file database applications in order to ensure their databases are up to date with the system. The applications used in the example are aide (an intrusion detection tool) and updatedb (to use with mlocate), but these are meant as examples. Do not consider this as a guide for AIDE.

To use /etc/portage/bashrc for this case, we need to "hook" in the postrm (after removal of files) and postinst (after installation of files) functions, because that is when the files on the file system have been changed.

FILE /etc/portage/bashrcHooking into the postinst and postrm phases
if [ "${EBUILD_PHASE}" == "postinst" ] || [ "${EBUILD_PHASE}" == "postrm" ];
  echo ":: Calling aide --update to update its database"
  aide --update
  echo ":: Calling updatedb to update its database"

Executing tasks after ebuild repository syncs

Using /etc/portage/postsync.d location

In addition to hooking into the ebuild phases, Portage offers another option for hook functionality: postsync.d. These types of hooks are run after updating, also referred to as syncing, the Gentoo ebuild repository. In order to run tasks after updating the Gentoo repository, put scripts inside the /etc/portage/postsync.d directory. Be sure any files inside the directory have been marked as executable or they will not run.

Example: Running eix-update

If eix-sync was not used to update sync the repository, then it is still possible to update the eix database after running emerge --sync (or emerge-webrsync) by putting a symlink to /usr/bin/eix called eix-update in /etc/portage/postsync.d.

root #ln -s /usr/bin/eix /etc/portage/postsync.d/eix-update
If a different name is chosen, then it needs to be a script that calls /usr/bin/eix-update instead. The eix binary looks at how it has been called to determine which function to execute. If a symlink were created that pointed to eix yet was not called eix-update, it would not run correctly.

Overriding profile settings

Usando /etc/portage/profile

By default, Gentoo uses the settings contained in the profile pointed to by /etc/portage/make.profile, which is a symbolic link to the target profile directory. These profiles define both specific settings as well as inherit settings from other profiles (through their parent files).

By using /etc/portage/profile, system administrators can override profile settings such as packages (what packages are considered to be part of the system set), forced USE flags, and more.

Example: Adding nfs-utils to the system set

When using an NFS-based file systems for critical file systems, it might be necessary to mark net-fs/nfs-utils as a system package, which will cause Portage to heavily warn administrators in the event they would attempt to unmerge it.

To accomplish this, the package must be added to the /etc/portage/profile/packages file, prepended with a * (asterisk symbol):

FILE /etc/portage/profile/packagesMarking net-fs/nfs-utils as a system package

Applying non-standard patches

Patching source code using user patches in /etc/portage/patches/

User patches provide a way to apply patches to package source code when sources are extracted before installation. This can be useful for applying upstream patches to unresolved bugs, or simply for local customizations.

Patches need to be dropped into /etc/portage/patches/. They will automatically be applied during package installation.

Patches can be dropped into any of the following directories:

  • /etc/portage/patches/${CATEGORY}/${P}/ e.g. /etc/portage/patches/dev-lang/python-3.3.5-r1/
  • /etc/portage/patches/${CATEGORY}/${PN}/ e.g. /etc/portage/patches/dev-lang/python-3.4.2/
  • /etc/portage/patches/${CATEGORY}/${P}-${PR}/ e.g. /etc/portage/patches/dev-lang/python-3.3.5-r0/

Example: Applying patches to Firefox

The www-client/firefox package is one of the many that already call eapply_user (possibly implicitly) from within the ebuild, so there is no need to override anything specific.

If for some reason (for instance because a developer provided a patch and asked to check if it fixes the bug reported) patching Firefox is wanted, all that is needed is to put the patch in /etc/portage/patches/www-client/firefox/ (it might be best to use the full name and version so that the patch does not interfere with later versions) and rebuild Firefox.