Gentoo Linux ia64 Manual: Configuração de rede

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This page is a translated version of the page Handbook:IA64/Full/Networking and the translation is 100% complete.

Handbook:IA64/Networking/Introdução

Handbook:IA64/Networking/Avançado

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Deutsch • ‎English • ‎español • ‎français • ‎polski • ‎português do Brasil • ‎русский • ‎українська • ‎中文(中国大陆)‎ • ‎日本語 • ‎한국어
IA64 Handbook
Installation
About the installation
Choosing the media
Configuring the network
Preparing the disks
Installing stage3
Installing base system
Configuring the kernel
Configuring the system
Installing tools
Configuring the bootloader
Finalizing
Working with Gentoo
Portage introduction
USE flags
Portage features
Initscript system
Environment variables
Working with Portage
Files and directories
Variables
Mixing software branches
Additional tools
Custom package repository
Advanced features
Network configuration
Getting started
Advanced configuration
Modular networking
Wireless
Adding functionality
Dynamic management


Network modules

Netifrc scripts now support modular networking scripts, which means support for new interface types and configuration modules can easily be added while keeping compatibility with existing ones.

Modules load by default if the package they need is installed. If users specify a module here that doesn't have its package installed then they get an error stating which package they need to install. Ideally, the modules setting is only used when two or more packages are installed that supply the same service and one needs to be preferred over the other.

Note
All settings discussed here are stored in /etc/conf.d/net unless otherwise specified.
FILE /etc/conf.d/netModule definitions
# Prefer ifconfig over iproute2
modules="ifconfig"
  
# You can also specify other modules for an interface
# In this case we prefer pump over dhcpcd
modules_eth0="pump"
  
# You can also specify which modules not to use - for example you may be
# using a supplicant or linux-wlan-ng to control wireless configuration but
# you still want to configure network settings per ESSID associated with.
modules="!iwconfig"

Interface handlers

We provide two interface handlers presently: ifconfig and iproute2. Only one of these is needed to do any kind of network configuration.

Both are installed by default as part of the system profile. iproute2 is the more powerful and flexible package.

FILE /etc/conf.d/netiproute2 is installed but still prefer ifconfig
# To prefer ifconfig over iproute2 if both are installed as openrc prefers
# to use iproute2 then
modules="ifconfig"

As both ifconfig and iproute2 do very similar things we allow their basic configuration to work with each other. For example both the below code snippet work regardless of which module the user is using.

FILE /etc/conf.d/netExample different approaches for configuration
config_eth0="192.168.0.2/24"
config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0"
  
# We can also specify broadcast
config_eth0="192.168.0.2/24 brd 192.168.0.255"
config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255"

DHCP

DHCP is a means of obtaining network information (IP address, DNS servers, Gateway, etc) from a DHCP server. This means that if there is a DHCP server running on the network, the user just has to tell each client to use DHCP and it sets up the network all by itself. Of course, the user will have to configure for other things like wireless, PPP or other things if required before he can use DHCP.

DHCP can be provided by dhclient, dhcpcd, or pump. Each DHCP module has its pros and cons - here is a quick run down:

DHCP module Package Pros Cons
dhclient net-misc/dhcp Made by ISC, the same people who make the BIND DNS software. Very configurable Configuration is overly complex, software is quite bloated, cannot get NTP servers from DHCP, does not send hostname by default
dhcpcd net-misc/dhcpcd Long time Gentoo default, no reliance on outside tools, actively developed by Gentoo Can be slow at times, does not yet daemonize when lease is infinite
pump net-misc/pump Lightweight, no reliance on outside tools No longer maintained upstream, unreliable, especially over modems, cannot get NIS servers from DHCP

If more than one DHCP client is installed, specify which one to use - otherwise we default to dhcpcd if available.

To send specific options to the DHCP module, use module_eth0="..." (change module to the DHCP module being used - i.e. dhcpcd_eth0).

We try to make DHCP relatively agnostic - as such we support the following commands using the dhcp_eth0 variable. The default is not to set any of them:

release 
Releases the IP address for re-use.
nodns 
Don't overwrite /etc/resolv.conf
nontp 
Don't overwrite /etc/ntp.conf
nonis 
Don't overwrite /etc/yp.conf
FILE /etc/conf.d/netSample DHCP configuration
# Only needed if you have more than one DHCP module installed
modules="dhcpcd"
  
config_eth0="dhcp"
dhcpcd_eth0="-t 10" # Timeout after 10 seconds
dhcp_eth0="release nodns nontp nonis" # Only get an address
Note
dhcpcd and pump send the current hostname to the DHCP server by default so this does not need to be specified anymore.

ADSL with PPPoE/PPPoA

First install the ADSL software:

root #emerge --ask net-dialup/ppp

Second, create the PPP net script and the net script for the Ethernet interface to be used by PPP:

root #ln -s /etc/init.d/net.lo /etc/init.d/net.ppp0
root #ln -s /etc/init.d/net.lo /etc/init.d/net.eth0

Be sure to set rc_depend_strict to YES in /etc/rc.conf.

Now we need to configure /etc/conf.d/net.

FILE /etc/conf.d/netA basic PPPoE setup
config_eth0=null (Specify the ethernet interface)
config_ppp0="ppp"
link_ppp0="eth0" (Specify the ethernet interface)
plugins_ppp0="pppoe"
username_ppp0='user'
password_ppp0='password'
pppd_ppp0="
noauth
defaultroute
usepeerdns
holdoff 3
child-timeout 60
lcp-echo-interval 15
lcp-echo-failure 3
noaccomp noccp nobsdcomp nodeflate nopcomp novj novjccomp"
  
rc_net_ppp0_need="net.eth0"

It is also possible to set the password in /etc/ppp/pap-secrets.

FILE /etc/ppp/pap-secretsSample pap-secrets
# The * is important
"username"  *  "password"

If PPPoE is used with a USB modem then make sure to emerge br2684ctl. Please read /usr/portage/net-dialup/speedtouch-usb/files/README for information on how to properly configure it.

Important
Please carefully read the section on ADSL and PPP in /usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2. It contains many more detailed explanations of all the settings any particular PPP setup will likely need.

APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing)

APIPA tries to find a free address in the range 169.254.0.0-169.254.255.255 by arping a random address in that range on the interface. If no reply is found then we assign that address to the interface.

This is only useful for LANs where there is no DHCP server and the system doesn't connect directly to the Internet and all other computers use APIPA.

For APIPA support, emerge net-misc/iputils with the arping USE flag or net-analyzer/arping.

FILE /etc/conf.d/netAPIPA configuration
# Try DHCP first - if that fails then fallback to APIPA
config_eth0="dhcp"
fallback_eth0="apipa"
  
# Just use APIPA
config_eth0="apipa"

Bonding

Bonding is used to increase network bandwidth or to improve resiliency in face of hardware failures. If a system has two network cards going to the same network, then the administrator can bond them together so the applications see just one interface but they really use both network cards.

There are many ways to configure bonding. Some of them, such as the 802.3ad LACP mode, require support and additional configuration of the network switch. For a reference of the individual options, please refer to the local copy of /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt.

First, clear the configuration of the participating interfaces:

FILE /etc/conf.d/netClearing interface configuration
config_eth0="null"
config_eth1="null"
config_eth2="null"

Next, define the bonding between the interfaces:

FILE /etc/conf.d/netDefine the bonding
slaves_bond0="eth0 eth1 eth2"
config_bond0="192.168.100.4/24"
# Pick a correct mode and additional configuration options which suit your needs
mode_bond0="balance-alb"

Remove the net.eth* services from the runlevels, create a net.bond0 one and add that one to the correct runlevel.

Bridging (802.1d support)

Bridging is used to join networks together. For example, a system may have a server that connects to the Internet via an ADSL modem and a wireless access card to enable other computers to connect to the Internet via the ADSL modem. It is possible to create a bridge to join the two interfaces together.

FILE /etc/conf.d/netBridge configuration
# Configure the bridge - "man brctl" for more details
bridge_forward_delay_br0=0
bridge_hello_time_br0=200
bridge_stp_state_br0=1
  
# To add ports to bridge br0
bridge_br0="eth0 eth1"
  
# You need to configure the ports to null values so dhcp does not get started
config_eth0="null"
config_eth1="null"
  
# Finally give the bridge an address - you could use DHCP as well
config_br0="192.168.0.1/24"
  
# Depend on eth0 and eth1 as they may require extra configuration
rc_net_br0_need="net.eth0 net.eth1"
Important
For using some bridge setups, consult the variable name documentation.
Important
When bridging using IPv6, SLAAC requires STP to be set to 1 as seen in the example above.

MAC address

It is possible to change the MAC address of the interfaces through the network configuration file too.

FILE /etc/conf.d/netMAC Address change example
# To set the MAC address of the interface
mac_eth0="00:11:22:33:44:55"
  
# To randomize the last 3 bytes only
mac_eth0="random-ending"
  
# To randomize between the same physical type of connection (e.g. fibre,
# copper, wireless) , all vendors
mac_eth0="random-samekind"
  
# To randomize between any physical type of connection (e.g. fibre, copper,
# wireless) , all vendors
mac_eth0="random-anykind"
  
# Full randomization - WARNING: some MAC addresses generated by this may
# NOT act as expected
mac_eth0="random-full"

Tunneling

Tunneling does not require any additional software to be installed as the interface handler can do it.

FILE /etc/conf.d/netTunneling configuration
# For GRE tunnels
iptunnel_vpn0="mode gre remote 207.170.82.1 key 0xffffffff ttl 255"
  
# For IPIP tunnels
iptunnel_vpn0="mode ipip remote 207.170.82.2 ttl 255"
  
# To configure the interface
config_vpn0="192.168.0.2 peer 192.168.1.1"

VLAN (802.1q support)

For VLAN support, make sure that sys-apps/iproute2 is installed and ensure that iproute2 is used as configuration module rather than ifconfig.

Virtual LAN is a group of network devices that behave as if they were connected to a single network segment - even though they may not be. VLAN members can only see members of the same VLAN even though they may share the same physical network.

To configure VLANs, first specify the VLAN numbers in /etc/conf.d/net like so:

FILE /etc/conf.d/netSpecifying VLAN numbers
vlans_eth0="1 2"

Next, configure the interface for each VLAN:

FILE /etc/conf.d/netInterface configuration for each VLAN
config_eth0_1="172.16.3.1 netmask 255.255.254.0"
routes_eth0_1="default via 172.16.3.254"
  
config_eth0_2="172.16.2.1 netmask 255.255.254.0"
routes_eth0_2="default via 172.16.2.254"

VLAN-specific configurations are handled by vconfig like so:

FILE /etc/conf.d/netConfiguring the VLANs
vlan1_name="vlan1"
vlan1_ingress="2:6 3:5"
eth0_vlan1_egress="1:2"
Important
For using some VLAN setups, consult the variable name documentation.




Other languages:
Deutsch • ‎English • ‎español • ‎français • ‎polski • ‎português do Brasil • ‎русский • ‎українська • ‎中文(中国大陆)‎ • ‎日本語 • ‎한국어
IA64 Handbook
Installation
About the installation
Choosing the media
Configuring the network
Preparing the disks
Installing stage3
Installing base system
Configuring the kernel
Configuring the system
Installing tools
Configuring the bootloader
Finalizing
Working with Gentoo
Portage introduction
USE flags
Portage features
Initscript system
Environment variables
Working with Portage
Files and directories
Variables
Mixing software branches
Additional tools
Custom package repository
Advanced features
Network configuration
Getting started
Advanced configuration
Modular networking
Wireless
Adding functionality
Dynamic management


Introduction

Wireless networking on Linux is usually pretty straightforward. There are three ways of configuring wifi: graphical clients, text-mode interfaces, and command-line interfaces.

The easiest way is to use a graphical client once a desktop environment is installed. Most graphical clients, such as wicd and NetworkManager, are pretty self-explanatory. They offer a handy point-and-click interface that gets users on a network in just a few seconds.

Note
Both NetworkManager and wicd offer text-mode interface utilities in addition to the main graphical interface. Emerge either the net-misc/networkmanager or net-misc/wicd package with the ncurses USE flag enabled. The nmtui or wicd-curses utilities are particularly useful for folks who do not use a X or Wayland based desktop environment, but still desire an easy-to-use tool that does not require hand-editing configuration files.

Wireless can also be configured from the command line by editing a few configuration files. This takes a bit more time to setup, but it also requires the fewest packages to download and install. Since the graphical clients are mostly self-explanatory (with helpful screen shots at their home pages), we'll focus on the command line alternatives.

There are three tools that support command-line driven wireless configurations: net-wireless/iw, net-wireless/wireless-tools and net-wireless/wpa_supplicant. Of these three, net-wireless/wpa_supplicant is the preferred one. The important thing to remember is that wireless networks are configured on a global basis and not an interface basis.

The net-wireless/iw software, the successor of net-wireless/wireless-tools, supports nearly all cards and drivers, but it cannot connect to WPA-only Access Points. If the networks only offer WEP encryption or are completely open, then net-wireless/iw beats the other package over simplicity.

Some wireless cards are deactivated by default. To activate them, please consult the hardware documentation. Some of these cards can be unblocked using the rfkill application. If that is the case, use rfkill list to see the available cards and rfkill unblock INDEX to activate the wireless functionality. If not, then the wireless card might need to be unlocked through a button, switch or special key combination on the laptop.

WPA supplicant

The WPA supplicant project provides a package that allows users to connect to WPA enabled access points.

root #emerge --ask net-wireless/wpa_supplicant
Important
It is necessary to have CONFIG_PACKET enabled in the kernel for wpa_supplicant to work. To see if it is enabled on the current kernel, try:
root #zgrep CONFIG_PACKET /proc/config.gz
root #grep CONFIG_PACKET /usr/src/linux/.config
Note
Depending on the USE flags, wpa_supplicant can install a graphical interface written in Qt5, which will integrate nicely with KDE. To get it, enable USE="qt5" for the net-wireless/wpa_supplicant package.

Next, configure /etc/conf.d/net so that the wpa_supplicant module is preferred over wireless-tools (if both are installed, wireless-tools is the default).

FILE /etc/conf.d/netForce the use of wpa_supplicant
# Prefer wpa_supplicant over wireless-tools
modules="wpa_supplicant"
Note
When using the host-ap driver it is necessary to put the card in Managed mode before it can be used with wpa_supplicant correctly. This can be achieved by setting iwconfig_eth0="mode managed" in /etc/conf.d/net.

Next configure wpa_supplicant itself (which is a bit more tricky depending on how secure the Access Points are). The below example is taken and simplified from /usr/share/doc/wpa_supplicant-<version>/wpa_supplicant.conf.gz which ships with wpa_supplicant.

FILE /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.confSomewhat simplified example
# The below line not be changed otherwise wpa_supplicant refuses to work
ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
  
# Ensure that only root can read the WPA configuration
ctrl_interface_group=0
  
# Let wpa_supplicant take care of scanning and AP selection
ap_scan=1
  
# Simple case: WPA-PSK, PSK as an ASCII passphrase, allow all valid ciphers
network={
  ssid="simple"
  psk="very secret passphrase"
  # The higher the priority the sooner we are matched
  priority=5
}
  
# Same as previous, but request SSID-specific scanning (for APs that reject
# broadcast SSID)
network={
  ssid="second ssid"
  scan_ssid=1
  psk="very secret passphrase"
  priority=2
}
  
# Only WPA-PSK is used. Any valid cipher combination is accepted
network={
  ssid="example"
  proto=WPA
  key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
  pairwise=CCMP TKIP
  group=CCMP TKIP WEP104 WEP40
  psk=06b4be19da289f475aa46a33cb793029d4ab3db7a23ee92382eb0106c72ac7bb
  priority=2
}
  
# Plaintext connection (no WPA, no IEEE 802.1X)
network={
  ssid="plaintext-test"
  key_mgmt=NONE
}
  
# Shared WEP key connection (no WPA, no IEEE 802.1X)
network={
  ssid="static-wep-test"
  key_mgmt=NONE
  # Keys in quotes are ASCII keys
  wep_key0="abcde"
  # Keys specified without quotes are hex keys
  wep_key1=0102030405
  wep_key2="1234567890123"
  wep_tx_keyidx=0
  priority=5
}
  
# Shared WEP key connection (no WPA, no IEEE 802.1X) using Shared Key
# IEEE 802.11 authentication
network={
  ssid="static-wep-test2"
  key_mgmt=NONE
  wep_key0="abcde"
  wep_key1=0102030405
  wep_key2="1234567890123"
  wep_tx_keyidx=0
  priority=5
  auth_alg=SHARED
}
  
# IBSS/ad-hoc network with WPA-None/TKIP
network={
  ssid="test adhoc"
  mode=1
  proto=WPA
  key_mgmt=WPA-NONE
  pairwise=NONE
  group=TKIP
  psk="secret passphrase"
}

Wireless tools

Initial setup and managed mode

The wireless tools project provides a generic way to configure basic wireless interfaces up to the WEP security level. While WEP is a weak security method it's still prevalent in the world.

Wireless tools configuration is controlled by a few main variables. The sample configuration file below should describe all that is needed. One thing to bear in mind is that no configuration means "connect to the strongest unencrypted Access Point" - wireless tools will always try and connect the system to something.

root #emerge --ask net-wireless/wireless-tools
Note
Although net-wireless/iw is the current tool for the wireless stack, net-misc/netifrc before version 0.6.0 does not work with the new commands. net-wireless/wireless-tools must be used with netifrc with earlier versions. For more information consult the variable name documentation.
FILE /etc/conf.d/netSample iwconfig setup
# Prefer iwconfig over wpa_supplicant
modules="iwconfig"
  
# Configure WEP keys for Access Points called ESSID1 and ESSID2
# You may configure up to 4 WEP keys, but only 1 can be active at
# any time so we supply a default index of [1] to set key [1] and then
# again afterwards to change the active key to [1]
# We do this incase you define other ESSID's to use WEP keys other than 1
#
# Prefixing the key with s: means it's an ASCII key, otherwise a HEX key
#
# enc open specified open security (most secure)
# enc restricted specified restricted security (least secure)
key_ESSID1="[1] s:yourkeyhere key [1] enc open"
key_ESSID2="[1] aaaa-bbbb-cccc-dd key [1] enc restricted"
  
# The below only work when we scan for available Access Points
  
# Sometimes more than one Access Point is visible so we need to
# define a preferred order to connect in
preferred_aps="'ESSID1' 'ESSID2'"

Fine-tune AP selection

It is possible to add some extra options to fine-tune the AP selection, but these are not required.

One way is to configure the system so it only connects to preferred APs. By default if everything configured has failed and wireless-tools can connect to an unencrypted Access Point then it will. This can be controlled by the associate_order variable. Here's a table of values and how they control this.

Value Description
any Default behavior.
preferredonly Only connect to visible APs in the preferred list.
forcepreferred Forceably connect to APs in the preferred order if they are not found in a scan.
forcepreferredonly Do not scan for APs - instead just try to connect to each one in order.
forceany Same as forcepreferred + connect to any other available AP.

There is also the blacklist_aps and unique_ap selection. blacklist_aps works in a similar way to preferred_aps. unique_ap is a yes or no value that says if a second wireless interface can connect to the same Access Point as the first interface.

FILE /etc/conf.d/netblacklist_aps and unique_ap example
# Sometimes you never want to connect to certain access points
blacklist_aps="'ESSID3' 'ESSID4'"
  
# If you have more than one wireless card, you can say if you want
# to allow each card to associate with the same Access Point or not
# Values are "yes" and "no"
# Default is "yes"
unique_ap="yes"

Ad-hoc and master modes

To set the system up as an ad-hoc node when it fails to connect to any Access Point in managed mode, use this as a fallback:

FILE /etc/conf.d/netFallback to ad-hoc mode
adhoc_essid_eth0="This Adhoc Node"

It is also possible to connect to ad-hoc networks, or to run the system in master mode so it becomes an access point itself.

FILE /etc/conf.d/netSample ad-hoc/master configuration
# Set the mode - can be managed (default), ad-hoc or master
# Not all drivers support all modes
mode_eth0="ad-hoc"
  
# Set the ESSID of the interface
# In managed mode, this forces the interface to try and connect to the
# specified ESSID and nothing else
essid_eth0="This Adhoc Node"
  
# We use channel 3 if you don't specify one
channel_eth0="9"
Important
An important resource about channel selection is the BSD wavelan documentation found at the NetBSD documentation. There are 14 channels possible; We are told that channels 1-11 are legal for North America, channels 1-13 for most of Europe, channels 10-13 for France, and only channel 14 for Japan. If in doubt, please refer to the documentation that came with the card or access point. Make sure that the channel selected is the same channel the access point (or the other card in an ad-hoc network) is on. The default for cards sold in North America and most of Europe is 3; the default for cards sold in France is 11, and the default for cards sold in Japan is 14.

Troubleshooting wireless tools

There are some more variables that can help to get the wireless up and running due to driver or environment problems. Here's a table of other things that can be tried.

Variable name Default value Description
iwconfig_eth0 See the iwconfig man page for details on what to send iwconfig.
iwpriv_eth0 See the iwpriv man page for details on what to send iwpriv.
sleep_scan_eth0 0 The number of seconds to sleep before attempting to scan. This is needed when the driver/firmware needs more time to active before it can be used.
sleep_associate_eth0 5 The number of seconds to wait for the interface to associate with the Access Point before moving onto the next one.
associate_test_eth0 MAC Some drivers do not reset the MAC address associated with an invalid one when they lose or attempt association. Some drivers do not reset the quality level when they lose or attempt association. Valid settings are MAC, quality and all.
scan_mode_eth0 Some drivers have to scan in ad-hoc mode, so if scanning fails try setting ad-hoc here.
iwpriv_scan_pre_eth0 Sends some iwpriv commands to the interface before scanning. See the iwpriv man page for more details.
iwpriv_scan_post_eth0 Sends some iwpriv commands to the interface after scanning. See the iwpriv man page for more details.

Defining network configuration per ESSID

In this section, we show how to configure network settings based on the ESSID. For instance, with the wireless network with ESSID ESSID1 configure a static IP address while ESSID ESSID2 uses DHCP.

Note
This works with both wpa_supplicant as well as wireless-tools
Important
Please consult the variable name documentation.
FILE /etc/conf.d/netoverride network settings per ESSID
config_ESSID1="192.168.0.3/24 brd 192.168.0.255"
routes_ESSID1="default via 192.168.0.1"
  
config_ESSID2="dhcp"
fallback_ESSID2="192.168.3.4/24"
fallback_route_ESSID2="default via 192.168.3.1"
  
# We can define nameservers and other things too
# NOTE: DHCP will override these unless it's told not to
dns_servers_ESSID1="192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2"
dns_domain_ESSID1="some.domain"
dns_search_domains_ESSID1="search.this.domain search.that.domain"
  
# You override by the MAC address of the Access Point
# This handy if you goto different locations that have the same ESSID
config_001122334455="dhcp"
dhcpcd_001122334455="-t 10"
dns_servers_001122334455="192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2"




Handbook:IA64/Networking/Estendendo

Handbook:IA64/Networking/Dinâmico

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