Complete Virtual Mail Server/Web Access

From Gentoo Wiki
Jump to:navigation Jump to:search
This page contains changes which are not marked for translation.
Note
This article is part of the Complete Virtual Mail Server series, and may require previous parts to have been read or followed.

One heavily used function of E-mail, is webmail access. Some users use it solely as their access, others use it as backup or when their own system is not available. There are several options available, with mail-client/squirrelmail and mail-client/roundcube being the most common ones. Squirrelmail can be used if bandwidth is a huge issue, roundcube is recommended otherwise and the focus of this article.

Installing roundcube

Roundcube can store its configuration in a database. Things like local addressbook, identities etc. can be stored there as well.

Here there are several options available. Use a local, per vhost based SQLite storage pool, use a postgres/mysql database per vhost or have all vhosts share the same database. There can be advantages for any of the above options. If webmail, for various domains, is on the same host as the imap server, then using one database for all domains is fine and can be an advantage. It could be desired that each domain, each vhost gets its own webmail interface (different skin and plugins) where all users could still log in. Meaning in the event of one of the vhosts webmail being broken, they can still access their e-mail normally using a different vhost. Whether the users settings 'live' in all vhosts or not, is based on the imap server. Roundcube bases its user id on the mail_host e.g. the imap server and thus when using localhost the user 'profile' is identical everywhere.

USE flags

USE flags for mail-client/roundcube A browser-based multilingual IMAP client with an application-like user interface

change-password Allow users to change passwords through Roundcube
enigma Add dependencies to support server-side GnuPG signing and/or encryption through the enigma plugin
exif Add support for reading EXIF headers from JPEG and TIFF images
fileinfo Use the dev-lang/php fileinfo extension to guess the mime_type of attachments
ldap Add dependencies to support connecting to an LDAP address book server
mysql Add mySQL Database support
postgres Add support for the postgresql database
spell Add dictionary support
sqlite Add support for sqliteembedded sql database
ssl Add support for SSL/TLS connections (Secure Socket Layer / Transport Layer Security)
vhosts Add support for installing web-based applications into a virtual-hosting environment
zip Enable support for ZIP archives

Note
Only postgres or mysql is required when not using sqlite.

Emerge

After choosing the appropiate USE flags, roundcube should be emerged:

root #emerge --ask mail-client/roundcube

Then, create a directory and install roundcube into it:

root #mkdir /var/www/mail
root #webapp-config -h mail -d / -I roundcube 1.5.2

Installing roundcube to Apache using TLS

Apache should be configured to serve roundcube under mail.example.com. For this, the following config file should be put under /etc/apache2/vhosts.d:

FILE /etc/apache2/vhosts.d/02_mail.confExample apache config
<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerName mail.example.com
        Redirect permanent / https://mail.example.com/
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:443>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@example.com
        DocumentRoot /var/www/mail/htdocs/
        ServerName mail.example.com

        <Directory /var/www/mail/htdocs/>
                Require all granted
                AllowOverride All
                Options FollowSymlinks MultiViews
                <IfModule mod_dav.c>
                        Dav off
                </IfModule>
        </Directory>
</VirtualHost>
Warning
This configuration will work at a basic level, but in order to use it over the internet, the connection must be secured with TLS. Otherwise, all passwords will be transmitted in plain text!. To fix this problem, it is recommended that all users perform the following steps.
Important
Please follow the guide at Complete_Virtual_Mail_Server/SSL_Certificates to set up certbot.

Once certbot is installed, the necessary certificates should be generated using the following command:

root #certbot --apache --rsa-key-size 4096 --staple-ocsp --hsts
Note
The options following --apache are not strictly necessary but are very helpful towards improving the security of the server. Thus, they should not be changed without reason.

/etc/apache2/vhosts.d/02_mail.conf should automatically be changed by certbot, the final file should look like this:

FILE /etc/apache2/vhosts.d/02_mail.confSecure apache config
<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerName mail.example.com
        Redirect permanent / https://mail.example.com/
        RewriteEngine on
        RewriteCond %{SERVER_NAME} =mail.example.com
        RewriteRule ^ https://%{SERVER_NAME}%{REQUEST_URI} [END,NE,R=permanent]
</VirtualHost>


<VirtualHost *:443>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@example.com
        DocumentRoot /var/www/mail/htdocs/
        ServerName mail.example.com
        Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15552000"
        Include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf
        
        <Directory /var/www/mail/htdocs/>
                Require all granted
                AllowOverride All
                Options FollowSymlinks MultiViews
                <IfModule mod_dav.c>
                        Dav off
                </IfModule>
        </Directory>
        SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.example.com/fullchain.pem
        SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.example.com/privkey.pem
        SSLUseStapling on
</VirtualHost>
<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
SSLStaplingCache shmcb:/var/run/apache2/stapling_cache(128000)
</IfModule>
Note
Further information about the configuration of TLS can be found at Complete_Virtual_Mail_Server/SSL_Certificates.

Using Postgres

Unless there is some serious security concern, only one database user is required to access all databases used by roundcube:

root #createuser -U postgres -D -P -R -S roundcube
Enter password for new role: $password
Enter it again: $password

Roundcube will also need a database. Different names will have to be chosen when using different databases per domain:

root #createdb -U postgres roundcubemail -O roundcube

Configuring Roundcube

Configuring roundcube has become incredible easy. Just visit https://mail.example.com/installer/ and follow the on screen instructions, correcting any issues as they pop up.

Below are the old instructions when manually creating the config.inc.php file. The installer should still be used to create the database, which it has a button for.

Configuring Roundcube (manually)

Configuring roundcube is as simple as editing two configuration files in /var/www/webmail.example.com/htdocs/roundcube/config/.

To access the database only the following line needs to be changed. The user name chosen earlier is roundcube. Replace pass in this line with the password chosen earlier:

FILE /var/www/webmail.example.com/htdocs/roundcube/config/db.inc.phpDatabase access
$rcmail_config['db_dsnw'] = 'pgsql://roundcube:pass@localhost/roundcubemail';

Next listed are the essential changes required for roundcube operation. More can be done to personalize the setup:

FILE /var/www/webmail.example.com/htdocs/roundcube/config/main.inc.phpRoundcube configuration
-$rcmail_config['default_host'] = '';
+$rcmail_config['default_host'] = 'localhost';
 
-$rcmail_config['smtp_server'] = '';
+$rcmail_config['smtp_server'] = 'localhost';
 
 // SMTP username (if required) if you use %u as the username Roundcube
 // will use the current username for login
+$rcmail_config['smtp_user'] = '';
-$rcmail_config['smtp_user'] = '%u';
 
 // SMTP password (if required) if you use %p as the password Roundcube
 // will use the current user's password for login
-$rcmail_config['smtp_pass'] = '';
+$rcmail_config['smtp_pass'] = '%p';
 
 // this key is used to encrypt the users imap password which is stored
 // in the session record (and the client cookie if remember password is enabled).
 // please provide a string of exactly 24 chars.
-$rcmail_config['des_key'] = 'rcmail-!24ByteDESkey*Str';
+$rcmail_config['des_key'] = '$supersecret24bytestring';

Starting with Roundcube version 0.6, Roundcube needs to have the fully qualified names for the default storage folders, such as Trash, Drafts etc:

FILE /var/www/webmail.example.com/htdocs/roundcube/config/main.inc.phpSetup fully qualified folder names
// NOTE: Use folder names with namespace prefix (INBOX. on Courier-IMAP)
-$rcmail_config['drafts_mbox'] = 'Drafts';
+$rcmail_config['drafts_mbox'] = 'INBOX.Drafts';
 
// NOTE: Use folder names with namespace prefix (INBOX. on Courier-IMAP)
-$rcmail_config['junk_mbox'] = 'Junk';
+$rcmail_config['junk_mbox'] = 'INBOX.Junk';
 
// NOTE: Use folder names with namespace prefix (INBOX. on Courier-IMAP)
-$rcmail_config['sent_mbox'] = 'Sent';
+$rcmail_config['sent_mbox'] = 'INBOX.Sent';
 
// NOTE: Use folder names with namespace prefix (INBOX. on Courier-IMAP)
-$rcmail_config['trash_mbox'] = 'Trash';
+$rcmail_config['trash_mbox'] = 'INBOX.Trash';
 
// NOTE: Use folder names with namespace prefix (INBOX. on Courier-IMAP)
-$rcmail_config['default_imap_folders'] = array('INBOX', 'Drafts', 'Sent', 'Junk', 'Trash');
+$rcmail_config['default_imap_folders'] = array('INBOX', 'INBOX.Drafts', 'INBOX.Sent', 'INBOX.Junk', 'INBOX.Trash');

Testing roundcube

Log into webmail via https://mail.example.com/ and the test mailbox should show. Also sending mail should be working correctly.