Настільна Книга:Головна Сторінка

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Настільна книга Gentoo — це спроба зібрати документацію в зв'язане керівництво. Книга містить інструкції для встановлення з викорситанням інтернету, та розділи про роботу з Gentoo та Portage.


Gentoo Linux доступний для багатьох архітектур. Але що таке архітектура?

Архітектура — це сімейство CPU (центральних процесорів) які підтримують однакові інструкції. В світі десктопів найбільш відомими архітектурами є x86 та x86_64 (в Gentoo використовується позначення amd64). Але також існує багато інших, такі як sparc, ppc(сімейство PowerPC), mips, arm, тощо.

Gentoo підтримує багато архітектур. З цієї причини Настільна книга Gentoo доступна для багатьох підтримуваних архітектур. Проте, це може призвести до непорозумінь оскільки не всі користувачі знають тип і назву їх ЦП (наприклад i686 або Intel Core i7). Нижче ви знайдете узагальнений список підтримуваних архітектур та абревіатури які часто використовуються в Gentoo. Проте більшість людей які не знають архітектури своєї системи в більшості випадків цікавляться x86 або amd64.

Перегляд Настільної Книги Gentoo

Список нижче дає поверхневий огляд архітектур підтримуваних різними проектами Gentoo Linux. Перш ніж продовжувати, важливо обрати правильний розділ Настільної Книги який відповідає вашій архітектурі. З'ясуйте архітектуру свого процесора перед тим як продовжувати.

Примітка для нових користувачів Gentoo: якщо вашому ЦП менше п'яти років і він випущений фірмами Intel або AMD, то швидше за все вам підійдe AMD64 Handbook

Архітектури arm і arm64 "підтримуються" проектом Gentoo, але поки вони не мають власних Настільних Книг. Будь ласка, перегляньте детальнішу інформацію тут ARM project і bug #534376
Alpha Handbook
The Alpha architecture is a 64-bit architecture developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). It is still in use by some mid-range and high-end servers, but the architecture is slowly being faded out. Variants include: ES40, AlphaPC, UP1000, and Noname.
AMD64 Handbook
AMD64 is a 64-bit architecture that is compatible with the x86 architecture (and thus also known as x86_64). It was first used by AMD (under the AMD64 name) and Intel (under the EM64T name) and is now the most prominent architecture for medium and high-end desktop PCs. It is also commonly found in the server segment. Variants include: AMD Athlon 64, Opteron, Sempron, Phenom, FX, Ryzen, Threadripper, and Epyc along with Intel Pentium 4, Core2, Core i3, i5, i7, i9, Xeon, and some Atoms.
ARM Handbook
ARM is a 32-bit architecture that is a very popular in embedded and small systems. Sub-architectures range from ARMv2 to ARMv6 (legacy), to ARMv6-M (Cortex), as well as ARMv8-R and ARMv8-M and are often found in smart phones, tablets, hand-held consoles, end-user GPS navigation systems, etc. Variants include: StrongARM and Cortex-M.
  • There is no ARM Handbook available at this time. Please see bug #534376.
ARM64 Handbook
ARM64 is a 64-bit variant of ARM for embedded and server systems. The primary sub-architecture referred to as AArch64 (also known as ARMv8-A) is produced by a few manufacturers. AArch64 chips are seen in a variety of SoCs including developer boards, smart phones, tablets, smart TVs, etc. Variants include: ARM Holdings' Cortex-A53, A57, A72, A73, and Qualcomm's Kryo and Falkor.
  • There is no ARM64 Handbook available at this time. Please see bug #534376.
HPPA Handbook
Referred to as HPPA, the PA-RISC architecture is an instruction set developed by Hewlett-Packard and was used in their mid- and high-end server series until about 2008 (after which HP started using Intel Itanium). Variants include: HP 9000 and PA-8600.
IA64 Handbook
IA64 is a 64-bit architecture designed by Intel and used in their Intel Itanium processor series. This architecture is not compatible with x86 or x86_64 (a.k.a. amd64) and is mostly found in medium and high-end server series. Variants include: Intel Itanium.
MIPS Handbook
Developed by MIPS Technologies, the MIPS architecture comprises multiple subfamilies (called revisions) such as MIPS I, MIPS III, MIPS32, MIPS64 and more. MIPS is most common in embedded systems. Variants include: MIPS32 1074K and R16000.
PPC Handbook
PPC is a 32-bit architecture used by many Apple, IBM, and Motorola processors. They are most commonly found in embedded systems. Variants include: Apple OldWorld, Apple NewWorld, generi Pegasos, Efika, older IBM iSeries and pSeries.
PPC64 Handbook
PPC64 is the 64-bit variant of the PPC architecture, popular in both embedded as well as high-end performance servers. Variants include: IBM RS/6000s, IBM pSeries, and IBM iSeries.
RISC-V Handbook
RISC-V is an upcoming 32-bit, 64-bit, and 128-bit architecture with an open instruction set. Currently, the 64-bit RISC-V variant is supported by Gentoo.
  • There is no RISC-V Handbook available at this time yet.
SPARC Handbook
The SPARC architecture is best known by its most common producers, Sun Microsystems (now Oracle) and Fujitsu. It is used in server systems although a few workstations exist as well. In Gentoo, only SPARC64-compatible CPUs are supported. Variants include: E3000, Blade 1000, and Ultra 2.
X86 Handbook
X86 is a 32-bit architecture used by CPUs that are often said to be "Intel compatible". It was until recently the most popular architecture for desktop PCs. Gentoo offers builds for i486 (supports all families) and i686 (supports Pentium and higher or compatible). Variants include: i486, i686, AMD Athlon, Intel Core, and some Intel Atoms.

Frequently asked questions

Can't the Handbook be dynamically generated for each installation choice?

The handbook maintainers have opted to write on a per-architecture level using Gentoo's default init system (OpenRC) and basic partitioning schemes. The point of the Handbook is to get a bare-bones Gentoo system up and running, not to cover all possible installation paths (irregular partitioning, init systems, kernel configuration, system management utilities, etc.).

Concepts such as advanced partitioning, non-generic kernel configuration, and alternate init systems are explained other areas around the wiki in publicly modifiable namespace (hint: anyone with wiki account can edit them!).

We ask our readers to search wiki and discover what is already available before requesting a new section or addition to be added to the Handbook. If you believe a new generic section is necessary to add to the Handbook, then propose a request by following the instructions below.

I cannot find stage1 information in the Handbook. Where do I look?

Instructions on using a stage1 or stage2 tarball are now available in the Gentoo FAQ. A stage3 installation is the only supported method of installation.

How do I improve the Handbook?

Suggestions, comments, or ideas on how to make the Handbook better can be reported to the Handbook project via the Discussion page of the respective article. Documentation is made for the community, so community feedback is well appreciated.

Active handbook editors are down to only two or three members, so please provide some patience as we respond to new {{Talk}} entries. See below for instruction on how to suggest a new improvement to the handbook.

Be aware that most decisions made while developing documentation are based on a consensus-model. It is impossible to write or structure documentation in such a way that renders every reader happy.

Those who open discussions with the goal of improving the Handbook must be able to accept a "No" as an answer. Typically "No" is used when we believe the current implementation is beneficial for the majority of readers.

In order to properly track open issues we ask you to add the {{Talk}} template to each discussion you open. Something similar to what is seen in the following example will suffice:

CODE Example open discussion
{{Talk|open|date=March 28, 2017}}
Hi Handbook team,
I constructively think FOO part of the Handbook can be enhanced in BAR way. Here is an example of the code/text that will make the improvement:
(insert code or text to be improved here.)
Thank you for considering my suggestion. --~~~~

The --~~~~ code at the end of the example inserts a dated signature when the page is saved or previewed. This code can either be typed in manually or generated by using the Signature and timestamp button in the edit toolbar. Wiki editors will refer to this as 'signing a discussion.' Please remember to sign each comment made on discussion pages.