- 1 Installation
- 2 Configuration
- 3 Saving settings
- 4 Making zsh default shell
- 5 Acknowledgements
When you start
zsh for the first time, you get the following message. You can skip this menu as we will create an init file later in this guide.
To start zsh for a single session, run
zsh . For a more permanent solution, please refer to the chapter on #Saving_settings. After the installation,
zsh seems to be very simple and rather limited in the area of functionality. To change this, several configuration changes need to be performed.
To enable the famous
zsh tab-completion system, you need to run the following commands:
Default completion style is quite plain and ugly. If you want to improve its appearance, enter the following commands:
It is also a good idea to enable the auto-correction of the commands typed:
The prompt may seem quite boring however, but we can fix it easily in several steps. First, we need to initialize advanced prompt support:
Available prompts samples may be printed via the
prompt -p command. Now we can activate our favorite one:
Another option is to create your own prompt. To do this you will need to set the PS1 environment variable.
While it is good to be able to create a custom text prompt, zsh also provides many escape sequences that allow system information to be inserted into the prompt. Some of the escape sequences available are:
|%T||System time (HH:MM)|
|%*||System time (HH:MM:SS)|
|%D||System date (YY-MM-DD)|
|%B - %b||Begin - end bold print|
|%U - %u||Begin - end underlining|
|%d||Your current working directory|
|%~||Your current working directory, relative to ~|
|%M||The computer's hostname|
|%m||The computer's hostname (truncated before the first period)|
|%l||Your current tty|
These escape sequences may simply be inserted into the environment variable, PS1, and zsh will parse them automatically.
Unfortunately, the default zsh configuration in Gentoo does not include command history support. As working with a shell without history is very frustrating, we should enter the following commands:
History won't be saved without the following command:
To prevent history from recording duplicated entries (such as
ls -l entered many times during single shell session), you can set the
A useful trick to prevent particular entries from being recorded into a history by preceding them with at least one space.
The following command won't be recorded. Note the extra space before it:
You can set the
autocd option if you want to avoid tedious typing of
cd command while changing current directory (for example
/etc instead of
cd /etc ).
If standard bash-like globbing does not satisfy you,
extendedglob option may be set to enable extended globbing (one similar to regular expressions).
When option above is set, you are able to use extended globbing queries such as
cp ^*.(tar|bz2|gz) .
Saving zsh settings
Once we have customized
zsh the way we like it, it is a good idea to save these options as the
zsh defaults for the system. One possible way to achieve this is to write our settings in the /etc/zsh/zshrc script. Alternatively, we could make them the defaults for our account only be editing ~/.zshrc .
Making zsh default shell
Option for users with root privileges
We can change shell for given user with
Alternative for non-root users
If your system administrator (despite gentle requests, that is) refuses to set the shell to zsh for you, you can set
bash to execute
zsh on startup, all you need to do is make a slight modification to your ~/.bashrc .
Another method of changing shells is to use the
chsh command (a utility used to change a user's login shell). A normal user may only change the login shell for his own account. As root, you can change the login shell of any user.
We would like to thank the following authors and editors for their contributions to this guide:
- Henryk Konsek
- Andrew Morritt
- Chris White
- Peter Weller